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II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Introduction 43 Chemotaxis toward Phosphotransferase Sugars 44 Metabolism-Dependent Chemotaxis 49 Intracellular Metabolites That Affect Flagellar Rotation Electron Transport-Dependent Taxis 54 Eubacterial Phototaxis 57 Summary 60 References 62 53 I. Introduction One specific pathway involved in chemotactically controlling bacterial swimming behavior is very well understood, as evidenced by the discussion in Chapter 2. In this system, dedicated membrane-spanning sensory transducing proteins (MCPs) bind a limited range of chemoeffectors and consequently stimulate an intracellular phosphorylation (Che) pathway to control the switching frequency of the flagellar motors.

In addition to phospho-CheA, then, other histidine kinases could donate phosphate to CheY. In fact, several studies have shown cross-specificity between noncognate kinases and response regulators using purified proteins in vitro. Purified nitrogen kinase, phospho-NtrB, has been demonstrated to donate phosphate to CheY (Ninfa et al, 1988). However, the kinetics and efficiency of phosphotransfer are reduced drastically compared with phosphotransfer between CheA and CheY. Nevertheless, NtrB also was found to activate CheY in vivo.

1989). Control of transducer methylation levels in Escherichia coli: Investigation of components essential for modulation of methylation and demethylation reactions. /. Bacteriol 171, 3609-3618. Russo, A. E, and Koshland, D. E. (1983). Separation of signal transduction and adaptation functions of the aspartate receptor in bacterial sensing. Science 220, 1016-1020. Sanders, D. , Gillece-Castro, B. , Stock, A. , Burlingame, A. , and Koshland, D. , Jr. (1989a). /. Biol Chem. 264, 21770-21778. Sanders, D.

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