By Israel Goldberg

In early 1973, I again to Israel from a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard collage, and used to be approved as a lecturer within the division of utilized Microbiology on the Hebrew college of Jerusalem. almost immediately after my go back, Professor Richard Mateles, who at the moment was once head of the dept, advised that i buy a great and entire publication on unmarried phone protein (SCP) to be able to extend my normal wisdom within the topic I had began then to paintings on; that used to be microbial usage of one-carbon (C ) compounds. l obviously, I took his suggestion (after all, he was once the Boss) and purchased the publication, which used to be the one common booklet released in this topic at the moment, and was once in keeping with papers offered on the First overseas convention on unmarried telephone Protein, held on the Massachussetts Institute of know-how (M.I.T.), on October 1967 (Mateles and Tannenbaum, editors) [1]. via this booklet I grew to become familiar with the world's starvation challenge that existed some time past, and ways that it used to be to be solved by way of SCP items ready from CO , fossil-based uncooked 2 fabrics, and from wastes.

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However, all these processes were discontinued. The four-phase system in the fermentor consists of nutrient medium, paraffin droplets, microbial cells, and air. This system must be dispersed (macromixing) and the parafin droplets must be converted to a form which is utilizable by the biological system (micromixing). (See the book of Wen and Fan on Models for Table 7. Advantages and disadvantages of an sCP process employing yeasts growing on n-paraffins. , expansion of existing facility-no need for new transport systems, source of heating and cooling water etc.

In open ponds, growth occurs in the top 20 to 30 centimeters, due to limited light penetration through the medium. Therefore, the culture medium has to be continuously or intermittently agitated sufficiently to prevent settling of the algae, to prevent thermal stratification, and to make light and nutrients available uniformly to all the algal cells. This can be achieved by paddle wheels, cage rotors, diffusers, jet pumps, windmills, and even manual agitation (in India) [175]. It can be seen that algal mass cultivation in an open pond system combines characteristics of agriculture (extensive land, water, and fertilizer use, dependence on sunlight and climate, and use of open systems causing contamination by different organisms), and of industrial processes (continuous operation and provision of nutrients at optimal concentrations) for SCP production.

The world capacity for methanol production is about 10 million tons with most commercial processes using natural gas or naphtha. Though it is difficult to forecast future supply rates (from petrochemicals) and prices of methanol, it can be expected that methanol will be available for many years due to the versatility and flexibility of the natural and renewable resources from which it can be produced. 58%). Methanol is available at a relatively low price, and is partially oxidized so that the oxygen re- Table 8.

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