By Gregor Kiczales, Jim des Rivieres, Daniel G. Bobrow

The CLOS metaobject protocol is a chic, high-performance extension to the CommonLisp item procedure. The authors, who built the metaobject protocol and who have been one of the team that constructed CLOS, introduce this new method of programming language layout, describe its evolution and layout ideas, and current a proper specification of a metaobject protocol for CLOS.Kiczales, des Rivières, and Bobrow exhibit that the "art of metaobject protocol design" lies in making a artificial mixture of object-oriented and reflective ideas that may be utilized less than current software program engineering issues to yield a brand new method of programming language layout that meets a extensive set of layout criteria.One of the key merits of together with the metaobject protocol in programming languages is that it permits clients to regulate the language to raised go well with their wishes. Metaobject protocols additionally disprove the adage that including extra flexibility to a programming language reduces its functionality. In offering the foundations of metaobject protocols, the authors paintings with real code for a simplified implementation of CLOS and its metaobject protocol, delivering a chance for the reader to achieve hands-on adventure with the layout strategy. additionally they contain a couple of routines that handle vital issues and open issues.Gregor Kiczales and Jim des Rivières, are contributors of the examine employees, and Daniel Bobrow is a study Fellow, within the process Sciences Laboratory at Xerox Palo Alto study Center.

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Here, you can see error mes‐ sages generated by Chrome and your own debugging output that you write with the console API. For more documentation on this, go to the Console API Reference. 28084; Debugging Chrome Apps | 15 Figure 1-11. A breakpoint set in debugger Figure 1-12. App paused at the breakpoint 16 | Chapter 1: Your First Chrome App Figure 1-13. 28084; Figure 1-14. Value displayed as JavaScript object There are additional console API calls for assertions, error logging, and getting a stack trace, which you can read about in the Console API Reference.

The options argument can have two optional Boolean keys. The first, create, means that the directory is created if necessary; if create is missing or false, the call fails if the directory isn’t there. If the second option, exclusive, is true, creation fails if the directory already exists. If neither option is true, the call succeeds only if the directory exists. Most commonly, you specify create: true when you want to create the directory if needed, which is what we did here, and no options if the directory must already exist.

Debugging Chrome Apps | 17 Chrome Release Channels As you might already know, there are four release channels for Chrome. These provide differing degrees of testing and update frequency. As releases mature, they make their way through the channels, which are described here: Stable Most tested, and intended to be used by most nondevelopers. These releases are updated about every six weeks, with minor updates more often. Beta A release due to become stable as soon as it’s fully tested, subjected to field testing as a beta, and had some remaining bugs fixed.

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