By Orlando Figes

From "the nice storyteller of recent Russian historians," (Financial Times) the definitive account of the forgotten warfare that formed the fashionable age

The cost of the sunshine Brigade, Florence Nightingale--these are the long-lasting icons of the Crimean warfare. much less recognized is this savage battle (1853-1856) killed virtually 1000000 squaddies and numerous civilians; that it enmeshed 4 nice empires--the British, French, Turkish, and Russian--in a conflict over faith in addition to territory; that it mounted the fault strains among Russia and the West; that it set in movement the conflicts that may dominate the century to come.

In this masterly historical past, Orlando Figes reconstructs the 1st complete conflagration of modernity, a world industrialized fight fought with strange ferocity and incompetence. Drawing on untapped Russian and Ottoman in addition to eu assets, Figes vividly depicts the realm at struggle, from the palaces of St. Petersburg to the holy websites of Jerusalem; from the younger Tolstoy reporting in Sevastopol to Tsar Nicolas, haunted via goals of spiritual salvation; from the normal infantrymen and nurses at the battlefields to the ladies and kids in cities lower than siege..

Original, magisterial, alive with voices of the time, The Crimean War is a ancient travel de strength whose depiction of ethnic detoxification and the West's relatives with the Muslim global resonates with modern overtones. without delay a rigorous, unique examine and a sweeping, panoramic narrative, The Crimean War is the definitive account of the conflict that mapped the terrain for today's world..

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Extra resources for The Crimean War (A History)

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In 1465–67 the threat of invasion made the authorities encircle the furthest settlements with wooden walls, including those on the other bank of the River Pskova. In 1481 these wooden fortifications were replaced by stone. In the 16th century all the fortifications of the possad became stone. Many towers and large sections of the walls of these urban fortifications survive to this day. com The living sites The largest part of any city was taken up by the dvors – the estates of princes, boyars, and bishops, and the courtyards of common freeborn citizens.

Methods of construction 34 Logs in wooden cell walls were generally joined ‘v oblo’, that is with the ends of the logs sticking out. This method was used alongside the ‘v lapu’ method, without the ends sticking out. The latter was particularly suitable for polygonal towers where the angle between logs was over 90 degrees. This method of joining logs can be seen on a discovered fragment of a tower of the Moscow Kremlin built of oak wood in 1339–40. The angle between the logs is 135 degrees here, which allows us to assume that the tower was octagonal.

The second half of the 13th century saw a growth of free-standing towers in the fortresses of the Galich-Volhynia principality, which came under the influence of its western neighbours Poland and Hungary. These towers were placed inside the walls and near to the side of the fortress most vulnerable to attack. They served concurrently as watchtowers, a second line of defence allowing fire to be brought to bear upon the assailants, as points for directing defensive operations, and as the place of final refuge if the enemy broke into the fortress.

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