By Rafi-us Samad

The northwestern areas of Pakistan and southeastern areas of Afghanistan have been as soon as the guts of a hugely constructed civilization whose cultural influence was once felt from China to Persia. a huge heart of Buddhism, its cultural attainments have been highlights of historic civilization. The author's study, observed by way of a few 60 illustrations, deals american citizens a completely new figuring out of the desolate area proven at the nightly information. The Persian, Greek and crucial Asian invasions of Gandhara, instead of inflicting extensive scale destruction within the quarter, promoted the advance of a multi-cultural.

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Extra info for The Grandeur of Gandhara : the Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys.

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The process of advancement of Buddhist religion was accompanied by major changes in the socio- economic environment of Gandhara. A distinc­ tive cultural pattern began to emerge which produced a powerful effect on all aspects of life in Gandhara. This process of providing a concrete shape to the Gandharan society was sustained during the subsequent rule of the Indus Greeks, and the Hellenized Sakas, Parthians and Kushans. Through a unique arrangement based on mutual trust and respect between the alien rulers and the local population a new civilization took shape.

1: P h a se s o f G a n d h a ra C iv iliz a tio n Thus Gandhara, while maintaining close links w ith various South Asian cultures, developed a distinct identity in the South Asian region— an iden­ tity in which strains of foreign cultures were clearly discernable. In the cul­ tural fabric woven through interactions with various cultures, the domi­ nating feature, however, was still that of the region where the Gandhara Civilization emerged. Gandhara had entered an exciting phase. Rapid changes were taking place in the political, social and cultural fields.

Taxila became the capital of the Satrapy of Sindh and a similar process of consolidation was initiated in the Taxila region. After the conquest of Gandhara and Taxila by the Achaemenids, we find, for the first time in the history of these regions (and also the first time in South Asia), the appearance of definitive w ritten material, which throws some light on the socio-economic conditions prevailing in Greater Gandhara and on the events which took place in this region from 535 to 326 BCE dur­ ing the rule of various Achaemenid emperors.

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