By Marian Kent

How some distance used to be the top of the Ottoman Empire the results of nice strength imperialism and the way a long way the results of structural weaknesses in the Empire itself? those experiences of the international coverage of every of the good Powers and the Ottoman Empire research those primary matters.

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It must be emphasised that the Austrians in no sense saw the decision to annex the provinces and to withdraw from the Sanjak as an antiTurkish move. It was intended, rather, to put an end to all ambiguity by drawing a clear line between what was Austro-Hungarian and what was Turkish, after which the Monarchy would be able to assume an attitude of benevolent detachment towards the neighbouring Empire. 36 Events showed that the Austrians had miscalculated. The Turks quite failed to appreciate the deeper, fundamentally conservative motives behind AustroHungarian policy, and not for the first or last time: the same misapprehensions had bedevilled Austro-Turkish relations after Mürzsteg and were to do so again over Albania.

1923. The ideology of the new state that was established thereafter consistently favoured the interests of these groups. The proceedings of the Congress are now conveniently in Türkiye ktisat Kongresi: 1923 Izmir (Ankara, 1968), compiled and edited by A. Gündüz Ökçün. Davison, ‘Turkish diplomacy’, pp. 186–7; for a detailed account based on Turkish documents, see Kurat, Türkiye ve Rusya, pp. 396–494. Davison, ‘Turkish diplomacy’, pp. 193–4. Ahmad, Young Turks, pp. 133 ff. See von der Goltz’s observations and his advice to withdraw to Anatolia, cited in Karal, Osmanh Tarihi, Vol.

The Ottoman Empire also suffered from basic structural defects (as was the case with other pre-modern tributary states) which made it unsuited to survive the challenge from the industrial West. The Western challenge was twofold: military and economic. To meet THE LATE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 21 the military threat, the entire state structure of the Empire had to be reformed so as to be efficient. But reform required large sums of money which the traditional revenue system, geared to simpler needs, could not generate.

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