By D R Vij; Institute of Physics (Great Britain)
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Additional info for The handbook of electroluminescent materials
The development high-ﬁeld electroluminescence in ZnS. 1936 1950 1950s 1960 1960s 1967 1968 1968 1974 1974 1981 1983 1988 1990s 1993 1994 High-ﬁeld electroluminescence from ZnS discovered by Destriau . Transparent electrically conductive zinc oxide developed. c. powder EL devices. GTE Sylvania obtains a patent for a powder EL lamp. Problems include low brightness, short lifetimes, poor contrast, and high operating voltage among others. Research and commercial interest eventually fades. Electroluminescence in thin-ﬁlm ZnS:Mn described by Vlasenko and Popkov .
Phys. 9 146  Desriau G 1955 Br. J. Appl. Phys. 4 Suppl. 9  Matossi F 1955 Phys. Rev. 98 546  Tanaka S 1988 J. Lumin. 40/41 20  Rennie J and Sweet M A S 1987 Cryst. Res. Technol. 2 K119  Wager J F, Hitt J C, Baukol B A, Bender J P and Keszler D A 2002 J. Lumin. 97 68  Kirton J 1981 Handbook on Semiconductors, Vol. 4, Devices Physics (North-Holland: Amsterdam) ch. 5C  Waite M S and Vecht A 1971 Appl. Phys. Lett. 19 471  Higton M, Vecht A and Mayo J 1978 Digest 1978 SID Int.
Thus, while high-ﬁeld EL exploits radiative transitions localized at the luminescent centre, the position of the ﬁnal energy levels associated with the light emission from transition metal and some lanthanide activators is inﬂuenced by the host. The outer energy levels of ions, bound together to form a solid, are signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by their surroundings. In an ideal ionic solid, cations and anions are treated as positive and negative point charges, and the atomic energy levels are modiﬁed according to the coulombic forces which exist between oppositely charged ions.