By William E. Stewart II (auth.)

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Et al. (1965) (1965); Table 1 (continued) Virus 33 Interferon Inducers In VIVO in vitro References + Hsiung and Vande Water (1966) Newcastle disease + + + + Isaacs (1962); Levine (1962); Burke and Isaacs (1958 a, b) Vesicular stomatitis + + Isaacs (1962); (1959) Chikungunya + + Isaacs (1962); Ruiz-Gomez and Isaacs (1963 a, b) Sindbis + Ho (1961) Parainfluenza-1 (Sendai) Parainfluenza-5 Cantell et al. (1965) Cooper and Bellett Western equine encephalitis + Lockart (1964) Eastern equine encephalitis + Wagner (1963 b) Mayoro + Henderson and Taylor (1961) O'Nyong-Nyong Bunyamwera + + + Isaacs (1962) Isaacs (1962) + Isaacs (1962); Gifford, Mussett, and Heller (1964) Rio Bravo + Jordan (1972 a) Japanese encephalitis + Grossberg and Scherer (1964) Kumba Powassan + Larke (1965) Yellow fever + + Isaacs (1962) West Nile Isaacs (1962) Tick- Borne encephalitis + Vilcek (1960) Dengue + Sather and Hammon (1963) + Long and Burke (1971) + Isaacs (1962); Burke and Isaacs (1958b) Friedman-Kien and Vilcek (1967) + + + U stacelebi and Williams (1973) + + + Reovirus-3 Fowl plague + Duck hepatitis + Molluscum contagiosum Rous sarcoma Polyoma Human adenoviruses Sueltenfuss and Pollard (1963) Force and Stewart (1966); Bader (1962) Beladi and Pusztai (1967); Ho and Kohler (1967); Pusztai et at.

Concentration vs. Volume Interferon effects are dependent on the interaction of interferons with the sensitive cells, and this interaction has been shown to follow the law of mass action (Stewart II, 1975a), so that cells with greater sensitivity bind more interferon than less sensitive cells when the interferon concentration is constant (Stewart II, Declercq and Desomer, 1972 b); on the other hand, the total amount of interferon bound by cells is independent of the volume of interferon sample to which they are exposed (see Section VIII.

Therefore, these assays are covered in the specific section relating to the non-antiviral alterations induced (priming, toxicity enhancement, cell-multiplication-inhibition; see Section X). D. Factors Influencing Interferon Assays Interferon assays involve an enormous number of variable which can significantly influence the apparent titers obtained. Multiple choices in assay systems can be made for the type of cells used, the challenge virus, each of the many assay methods described above, and the specific conditions affecting assay results as described below can each be manipulated to influence assay outcomes within any of the above cell-virus-assay method sets.

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