By G. Wolfgang Fuhs (auth.)

of energids in keeping with cellphone is thought to equivalent the variety of genetic enhances in addition to the variety of possible cells that finally may perhaps emerge from it with out replication of its genetic fabric. (In eucaryotic cells, polyenergidy happens within the kind of cells containing a number of nuclei each one or as polyploidy, relating the co-existence of genollles in the obstacles of a unmarried nucleus. evidently phrases akin to "poly nucleated" and "polyploid" arc beside the point for protocaryotic cells.) The variety of energids pCI' mobilephone will be topic to edition as a reaction to sure environmental stipulations 01' in the course of definite levels of a developmental cycle. The absence in protocaryotic nuclear our bodies of structural elements except DNA markedly impacts their constitution and morphology. because the protocaryon basically is an accumulation of DNA, the quantity, mo­ lecular association and chemical country of the DNA are easy determinants of nuclear form and high quality constitution. hence, the prepared DNA molecule (the genophor) needs to be thought of the significant topic of any treatise facing nuclear cytology in micro organism and Cyanophyceae.

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Extra resources for The Nuclear Structures of Protocaryotic Organisms (Bacteria and Cyanophyceae)

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3 Fig. ]~. nnidinc and germinated in cold nwdillm. ion of label are obtained m; shown. ,Freqlleneies are: types one ami two, 25 per eent each, type three: 50 per cent. Numbers of fignres correspollli to those in the diagram (Fig. 13). JACOB (1966 b). @ spore ! ( {~\ ) 1"~ g enera tio n (J:: a / r'~ I(C~) ~r)J Cd):~ (}I (It

It was found that Eo coli mating types could be characterized immunoehemically. Strains which harbor the "male" charadeI' (the F episome) and which are capable of transferring this character to "female" (F' -less, F-) cells, showed a particular antigenic property (0RSKOV and 0RSKOV 1960, SNEATH and LEDERBERG 1961). This property was considercd important in promoting thc establishment of cell-to-cell contact between cells belonging to opposite mating types. e. cells which harbor the F episome bu 1 fail to form conjugation pairs.

E. as mature phage) besides being eapable of replicating in the autonomolls (vegetative) or integrated (prophage) state inside a hacterial cell. Integration of phagc into a hacterial genomc is a recombinatOl"Y cvent. As a conscquence, the phagc genome can act as a sequcncc of bacterial genes, conferring certain ht'rcdiiary iI'aits to the hacterial phenotype. Prophage is undetectable with present cytological techniques. The size of the DNA segment, however, is known in many instances. Vegetative phage, arising from infection or frolll the induetion of IHOphage, not only replicates at a faster rate than is characteristie of the bacterial genome, hut frequently also blocks the funetions of the baeterial nucleoid.

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