By Fikret Adanir, Suraiya Faroqhi

This dialogue of historiography about the Ottoman Empire will be considered within the context of the discipline's self-examination, which has been inspired via contemporary conflicts in south-eastern Europe and the center East. The members research the style during which the historiographies verified in a number of nationwide states have seen the Ottoman Empire and its legacy. whilst they speak about the hyperlinks of 20th-century historiography with the wealthy historic culture of the Ottoman Empire itself, either in its metropolitan and its provincial types. The fight opposed to anachronisms born from the nationalist paradigm in heritage without doubt constitutes an important universal characteristic of those another way very various reviews. all through, the individuals have distanced themselves from the nostalgia for "the earlier greatness" of sure rulers of yore, and aimed for a indifferent, source-based evaluation of old advancements. they've got made a awake attempt to debunk historical myths, even if, human weak spot being what it's, their successors most likely will accuse them of being chargeable for new myths of their flip.

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In a nineteenth-century context, military service constituted a core feature both of state formation and of nation-building. 96 Moreover, mixing men from different regions often resulted in a growing uniformity of customs back home. Spaghetti spread throughout Italy after conscripts had encountered them during their military service, and in Germany after 1870, the Christmas tree ceased to be regarded as a Protestant peculiarity after Catholic exsoldiers had brought the custom back to their villages.

Harvard University, 1975; Irina Evgen'evna Fadeeva, Midhat-pasha. ^hizyi' i deyatel'nost' (Moscow, 1977); Krumka Sharova, "Midhat Pasha i Bulgarskoto revolyutsionno dvizhenie prez 1872 godina", Istoncheski pregled 1991, No. 6, 3-16, and No. 7, 3-19; Maria Todorova, "Midhat Pa§a's Governorship of the Danube Province", in Decision Making in the Ottoman Empire, ed. by Caesar E. Farah (Kirksville MO, 1993), 115-128. 102 L Halil Sedes, 1875-1878 Osmanh ordusu sampan, vol. 1-3 (Istanbul, 1935); Yulug Tekin Kurat, "1877-78 Osmanli-Rus harbinin sebepleri", Belleten 26 (1962), 567-592.

On Bosnian Muslim immigration into the Ottoman Empire, see also F. Adanir's contribution in this volume. 108 However, in practice, Abdiilhamid II maintained good relations with quite a few non-Muslim businessmen, who were given marks of sultanic favor in the form of decorations and honorific titles. 110 Consequently, already in the first half of 1914 about 100,000 Greeks were compelled to leave Aegean Anatolia for the nearby islands. 111 Yet more comprehensive and radical measures were taken against the Armenians living in the eastern provinces.

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