By Geoffrey Lloyd, Nathan Sivin

The wealthy civilizations of China and Greece outfitted sciences of similar sophistication -- each one in accordance with diverse foundations of notion, procedure, and association. during this engrossing ebook, world-renowned students examine the cosmology, technological know-how, and drugs of China and Greece among four hundred B.C. and A.D. two hundred, casting new mild not just at the civilizations but in addition at the evolving personality of technology. Sir Geoffrey Lloyd and Nathan Sivin examine the diversities among the thinkers within the civilizations: what inspired them, how they have been trained, how they made a residing, and whom they argued with and why. The authors' new process integrally compares social, political, and highbrow styles and connections, demonstrating how all affected and have been suffering from rules approximately cosmology and the actual global. They relate conceptual variations in China and Greece to the varied ways in which intellectuals within the civilizations earned their residing, interacted with fellow inquirers, and have been concerned with constructions of authority. via A.D. 2 hundred the unique clinical strengths of either China and Greece confirmed equivalent strength for idea and perform. Lloyd and Sivin argue that that smooth technology developed no longer out of the Greek culture by myself yet from the strengths of China, Greece, India, Islam, and different civilizations, which converged first within the Muslim international after which in Renaissance Europe.

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96). c. Its vogue lasted a couple of centuries, until the new imperial government wiped out the old local courts, leaving few large-scale patrons. Only a handful of the clients that patrons supported were inquirers after wisdom. Guests were more likely to be masters of useful arts, advisors on rulership and strategy, trainers in military techniques, persuaders, confidential messengers, assassins, or experts in dirty tricks. 24 Patrons strove to attract guests from the courts of rivals, knowing that they would bring current intelligence with them.

Although many members of the Roman elite were suspicious of Greek learning, some (such as Cicero) went to Athens to be taught philosophy and rhetoric. Movement in the reverse direction, of Greeks going to Rome to further their careers, grew in importance only at the end of our period. Galen is an example. He was educated in both philosophy and medicine in cities in the Greek east (including a visit to Athens and study at Alexandria), but he came to practice in Rome and eventually became court physician to the emperor Marcus Aurelius.

Patronage” can mean a great many things. 22 In China patronage had no statutory standing. The sovereign could also terminate the appointments of regular civil servants when he wished, but that was rare. In practice, infractions or imperial tantrums were more likely to lead to a fine, exile, confinement, or an order to commit suicide. Clients, on the other hand, were dispensable on any whim. We will examine in the next chapter the complex forms that patronage took in Greece and Rome (p. 96). c.

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