By Nazmi Bilir, Banu Çakir, Elif Dagli, Toker Ergüder and Zeynep Önder

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They were also asked if during the previous school year they had been taught about the dangers of tobacco, discussed the reasons why young people smoke or been taught about the effects of tobacco on their health. 1% had been taught about the effects of tobacco on their health. The Ministry of Education, with support from the WHO Country Office, Turkey, repeated the GYTS in May 2009 in 30 provinces on a representative sample of schoolchildren in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th grades. Passive smoking Some studies have been carried out in different cities on the prevalence of passive smoking but the data are inadequate and further studies are clearly warranted.

Nearly half (53%) of secondary school graduates smoke whereas only 13% of illiterate people smoke. In addition to high tobacco consumption among adults, a significant number of smokers show addictive behaviour. A considerable number of smokers smoke a cigarette before having breakfast, and 1 in 10 chain-smoke. 10. Tobacco-smoking is quite common among health professionals. 4% among health technicians. 11. 1%, respectively, were current smokers. Over 3 in 10 schoolchildren had seen advertisements for cigarettes on billboards and about 28% had seen advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines in the Tobacco control in Turkey page 30 month prior to the survey.

Table 19. Tobacco imports by Tekel, 1988–1999 Year Quantity (tonnes) Cost ($1000) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 4 082 3 279 10 984 21 934 22 497 18 325 19 411 24 954 24 351 42 174 48 846 23 562 21 429 68 635 133 133 129 185 91 563 91 779 106 098 147 127 255 408 247 591 Source: Ozkul I, Sarı Y (39). Tobacco control in Turkey page 32 Fig. 10. Oriental tobacco leaf use in Tekel cigarette factories, Turkey, 1990–1999 90 000 80 000 Quantity (tonnes) 70 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Years Table 20.

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