By M. Talha Çiçek
During the 1st global conflict, Cemal Pasha tried to set up direct keep an eye on over Syrian and thereby reaffirm Ottoman authority there via numerous regulations of keep an eye on, together with the abolishment of neighborhood intermediaries.
Elaborating on those Ottoman guidelines of keep watch over, this e-book assesses Cemal Pasha’s regulations in the direction of varied political teams in Syrian society, together with; Arabists, Zionists, Christian monks and Armenian immigrants. the writer then is going directly to examine Pasha’s academic actions, the conscription of Syrians- either Muslim and Christian, and the reconstruction of the foremost Syrian towns, assessing how those guidelines contributed to his try and create excellent Ottoman citizens.
An vital addition to present literature at the social and political historical past of worldwide struggle I, and contributing a brand new knowing of Ottoman Syria, and its transformation right into a countryside, this publication could be of curiosity to scholars and students with an curiosity in country formation, Politics and History.
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Extra resources for War and State Formation in Syria: Cemal Pasha's Governorate During World War I, 1914-1917
In addition to internal threats to the expansion of state authority in Syria, Cerna! struggled for the abolition of foreign, and particularly French, influ ence there, which had become quite significant in Syria over the years thanks to the French-backed educational and religious institutions that made Ottoman authority seem weak in the eyes of its citizens and prevented the Ottoman state from shaping the "behaviours, actions and even comport ments" of its citizens. 1 64 This issue is analyzed in Chapter 4.
1 56 For example, Faris al-Khoury and Amin Said claim in their memoirs that Faysal escaped from Damascus upon the beginning of the executions and launched the "Great Arab revolts" with his father in response. 1 57 Another problem of these memoirs is that they restrict their descriptions regarding the war period largely to Cemal's executions at the expense of other disastrous incidents, such as famine, epidemics, and battles. Since they were written in the mandate period, the authors of these memoirs used their narratives to legitimize the place of the Arab nationalist movement in the post-war period.
Although Cerna! thought himself to be a privileged Turk and regarded Anatolia as his motherland, Cemal's policy in Syria was not one of coloni zation, but of re-formation of the Ottoman state according to the ideals of the CUP. This would also enable him "to shape the conduct" of the Arabs, making them loyal to the idea of Ottoman unity. 1 1 9 This is nothing but a strong sense of patriotism, required of the citizens of nation-states, and the process introduced by Cerna! Pasha in Syria was the re-formation of a modem state according to the nation-state model.