By Charles A. Frazee

This publication surveys the relatives among Catholics inside and outside the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. After the autumn of Constantinople the one huge Latin Catholic staff to be included into the sultan's area have been the Genoese who lived in Galata, around the Golden Horn from the Byzantine capital. Over the following couple of a long time Turkish armies driven into the Balkans, overrunning the Catholic inhabitants of Albania, Bosnia and Hungary. within the Orient, the 16th century observed the Maronites of Lebanon, the Latins of Palestine and many of the Greek islands, which as soon as held Latin Catholic groups, come below Turkish rule. Papal reaction to the lack of those groups was once at the beginning a decision to the campaign, yet reaction from West eu monarchs was once disappointing. Their issues have been towards domestic. French curiosity, even if, lay in an alliance with the Turks opposed to the Habsburgs. As an advantage, the Catholics of the Ottoman international obtained a protector on the Porte within the individual of the French ambassador. The publication strains the following background of the Latin Catholics and every of the japanese Catholic church buildings within the Ottoman Empire until eventually its dissolution in 1923.

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At the time of Barbarossa's attack, the ruler was Duke Giovanni II Crispo. Naxos, impossible to defend, surrendered to the Muslim fleet and in return for his confirmation as duke, Giovanni agreed to pay an annual tribute of 5,000 gold coins. He also agreed to the appointment by the patriarch of Constantinople of a Greek Orthodox bishop to the see of Naxos. Later, when a Latin bishop appeared on Naxos in 1540 without receiving permission from the Turkish authorities, he was arrested. 15 Throughout the following year Barbarossa pursued his policy of subordinating the Catholic islands of the Aegean to Istanbul.

Since the Cilician Armenians had discovered that the Western knights shared their distaste for Turks and Greeks, and since both groups needed support against the Muslims, it had made both religious and political sense for Rome and Sis to reach accommodation. The catholicate at Sis had therefore operated within the Catholic community for several centuries, but in 1382 the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia was destroyed by a Mamluk invasion which left the church in tragic circumstances. For the next century Egyptians, Kurds and Turkomans took turns at despoiling the Armenians.

With a band of loyal Albanians he then made for home. Once there he presented the document to Zabel Pasa, the Turkish governor, who turned over the fortress and town according to the orders in the rescript. Kastriote then proceeded to Kruije's cathedral, where he renounced Islam and made a profession of Catholicism. Henceforth, as Skanderbeg, he became the leader of Albanian resistance to the Turks. On 1 March 1444 the other lords of Albania, the Prince of Montenegro, Stefan Czernowic, and delegates from Venice responded to a call from Skanderbeg to meet at Lezhe.

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