By James C. Hsiung (eds.)

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Navy, under Commodore Perry, opened up Japan in 1853. In reaction, the Japanese military class hastened to build a modern military force before neighboring China and Korea could catch up. Since then, Japan has turned itself into an aggressive power and taken advantage of its newly acquired military might to exploit its neighbors’ resources for Japan’s own modernization. This is the background of modern Sino-Japanese relations. This relationship between the two countries falls into four stages—from the Meiji Restoration to Hirohito’s succession, from Hirohito’s succession to the end of World War II, from the end of World War II to the end of the cold war, and from the end of the cold war to the present.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Herz, John. 1950. Idealistic internationalism. World Politics 2 (2): 157–80. Hobson, John A. 1965. Imperialism: A study. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. , and Steven I. Levine, eds. 1992. China’s bitter victory: War with Japan, 1937–1945. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. 20 • C HINA AND J APAN AT O DDS / J AMES C. H SIUNG Hsiung, James C. 2001. Twenty-first century and the Asia Pacific: Value change, exigencies, and power realignment. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Relations were relatively stable, though not necessarily friendly. Dengist reform in the post-Mao period, however, changed China’s course and status. In the ensuing three decades (1977–2006), the Chinese economy moved forward at a breakneck 6–10 percent annual growth rate. Its newly gained robust strength was evinced by its ability to emerge almost unscathed from the Asian financial crisis of 1997–1999, which sent all the region’s other economies tumbling down. In contrast, the Japanese economy remained in the doldrums for over a decade and a half after 1990.

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