By Norman Hampson

За прошлые 50 лет немного историков сделали такой выдающийся вклад в исследование 18-ого столетия Европой как Norman Hampson. Он написал много книг и многочисленных статей, имеющих дело с эпохой просвещениея и революционной Францией, преподавая в университетах Манчестера, Ньюкасла и Йорка. Через его письма и преподавание, не говоря уже о его роли в Обществе Исследования французской Истории, которой он был президентом со дня основания, он проявил глубокое влияние поколению ученых. Проявляя широкий культурный и интеллектуальный подход, эта коллекция эссе содержит вклады ученых 18-ого столетия Европы, тех пишет в темах, касающихся Просвещения и французской Революции, и кто знал его как коллегу, наблюдателя или друга. Уделяя внимание по-видимому разнообразныи предметам, как наука и армейская реформа, французский интерес к Китаю, Атлантическому рабству, и снабженные предисловием оценкой человека так же как историка, эти эссе связаны темами и подходами. Однако, "Просвещение и Революция" не являются просто оценкой его работы; эссе исследуют новые темы в истории периода и вновь исследуют некоторые из более знакомых аспектов французского Просвещения и Революции.Over the final 50 years few historians have made such a good contribution to the learn of 18th-century Europe as Norman Hampson. He has written many books and various articles facing the Enlightenment and progressive France, whereas educating on the Universities of Manchester, Newcastle and York. via his writing and educating, let alone his position within the Society for the research of French heritage for which he was once the founding President, he has exerted a profound impression over a iteration of students. it truly is to have fun those lasting achievements that "Enlightenment and Revolution" has been assembled. Taking a large cultural and highbrow process, this selection of essays includes contributions by means of fellow students of 18th-century Europe, who write on subject matters when it comes to the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, and who've identified him as colleague, manager or good friend. protecting such possible various matters as technological know-how and armed forces reform, French curiosity in China, Atlantic slavery and the hyperlinks among Voltaire and Hume, and prefaced via an appraisal of the fellow in addition to the historian, those essays are associated through issues and techniques that endure the hallmark of Norman Hampson's impression. notwithstanding, "Enlightenment and Revolution" isn't really easily an appreciation of his paintings; the essays discover new issues within the historical past of the interval and re-evaluate many of the extra conventional features of the French Enlightenment and Revolution. As such, they supply a tribute to the spirit and writings of Norman Hampson.--

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194. Despite the overblown style and excessively exculpatory tone, this is a well-researched and informative study. 62 63 EnLightenment and RevoLution Louis XVI and the PubLic Sphere which attracted a great deal of hostile publicity. It was unprecedented for a queen to buy a chateau on her own account, even more so to staff it with servants wearing her own special livery, and even more so still to issue orders signed 'de par la reine'. Madame Campan recalled: a virtue into a vice by acquiring the reputation of impotence.

102-17. Dhombres, Les savants en Revolution, 1789-99, pp. 56-7. , p. 60. Louis XVI and the Public Sphere Chapter 3 Louis XVI and the Public Sphere Tim Blanning When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne on 27 April 1774 at the age of nineteen, he enjoyed numerous assets. He was reasonably intelligent, reasonably well-educated, reasonably good-looking, reasonably goodnatured and reasonably well-balanced. In short, he seemed to be just the monarch to rule a satiated country with a vested interest in the juste milieu.

By 1795 France had thirty foundries providing weapons for the army, compared to only four in 1789; and the amounts of saltpetre collected for powder-manufacture increased twelve-fold in the three years after 1792. 62 But in all this, it should be emphasised, there was little new science. Most of the techniques were already known during the ancien regime. What was new in the Revolutionary period was the political will to break with tradition and apply scientific knowledge to the needs of the military on a scale that would have been difficult to imagine in the France of Louis XVI.

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