By Russell D. Buhite

A learn of the effectiveness of summitry as a method of international relations. utilizing the instance of the 1945 Yalta convention among Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt, the writer argues that heads of kingdom make useless negotiators.

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To Carolyn Travers, the project editor, and to others on the editorial staff, I am grateful for the elimination of stylistic slips and the various and sundry errors that exist in any manuscript. My research assistant, Garth Todd, did yeoman work in gathering both manuscript and secondary materials for my use. The staff at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library proved most cooperative and helpful during my stay there in the summer of 1984, a stay made possible by a grant from the Four Freedoms Foundation of the Roosevelt Library.

M. instead of 3:00 Page 8 or 3:30 as Roosevelt had planned. As it turned out, Stalin secretly had arranged a meeting with Churchill for 3:00 o'clock, ostensibly to inquire about his comfort but actually to discuss Germany. The Churchill-Stalin talk focused mainly on Germany's military conditions and the campaign in Italy. Stalin praised the Allied bombing attacks and the damage they had done, especially to the transportation system. He also noted that Germany was short on staples, such as bread and coal, and on the Eastern Front had even begun to throw old men and young boys into battle.

Looking first at the European war, the Soviets by February 1945 had reversed the tremendous setbacks of 1941 and 1942, cleared German armies from Russian territory, and moved in Page xv force into Eastern Europe. By every measure the Soviets' record was impressive, easily dwarfing the achievements of their Western allies in this theater. Neither the British nor the Americans, who entered the war in December 1941, provided much assistance during the first eighteen months after the Nazi attack on Russia, thereby requiring that the Soviets meet the German onslaught as best they could.

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