By Irina P. Kosminskaya

Deep seismiC sounding used to be proposed by means of G. A. Gamburtsev and built less than his guid­ ance in the course of the interval 1948-1955 on the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. in the course of that interval additionally, the 1st geophysical effects about the deep constitution of the earth's crust in numerous areas in Tien-Shan, the Pamir, and Turkmenia have been saw. starting with 1956, the deep seismic sounding strategy has been used largely by way of geo­ actual examine teams in addition to by way of geophysical carrier organisations for nearby experiences within the USSR. Descriptions of this paintings were given in reviews by way of Yu. N. Godin, V. V. Fedynskii, D. N. Kazanli, and others. New versions of the deep seismic sounding technique were constructed; non-stop profiling (Yu. N. Godin, and others), and element soundings (N. N. Puzyrev, and others). Deep seismic soundings were carried on outdoor of Russia additionally, and experiences were performed at the use of the deep seismic sounding strategy in marine functions (E. I. Gal'perin, S. M. Zverev, 1. P. Kosminskaya, Yu. P. Neprochnov, and others). over the last decade, the deep seismic sounding process has joined the suite of geo­ actual experiences as a hugely targeted process for learning the earth's crust and higher mantle to depths of fifty to a hundred km on land, and of 15 to twenty-five km within the deep oceans.

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In Table 4, relative intensities of the signal S(w) • Q(w) in comparison with signals' at a frequency of 10 Hz are designated as S1' S2' and Ss. The signal ratios for particle displacement spectra (see Fig. 10) are given in the first column, while the ratios for particle velocity spectra (Fig. 8) are given in parentheses. Values for the ratio St/M are similarly given in two columns of figures. For resonant shots on land Q2 the optimum frequency is 10 Hz, while at sea it is 5 Hz. Thus, the advantage of making observations at low frequencies where the effects of attenuation are not severe (the optimum frequency in Table 3 is lower, for Q2 it is 3 to 7 Hz, and for Qs, it is 3 Hz) does not offset the effect of increasing noise levels at lower frequencies.

7. Relation of dominant frequencies on records to thickness of the sedimentary section: a) crustal section along the propagation paths; b) observed curves for dominant frequency at recording stations Ml and M2; c) wave spectra at exit points Ml and M2 calculated for the given shot spectrum (1). 5 x 10- 2 km in the sedimentary section, and the dashed curves apply for a = 5 x 10- 2 km. Comparing th~se results with specific data, we have found that it is sometimes possible to evaluate the effect of attenuation.

For the p61efl wave, the frequency is 3 Hz in both cases. Hence, it follows that at large distances, the resonant character of the shot spectrum must essentially mask the effect of attenuation for specific values of a, and so it is preferable to record the lower frequencies (3-5 Hz). We will now determine what excitation frequencies are optimal from the point of view of the signal-to-noise ratio. § 5. Spectra of Microseisms and Optimum Frequency Bands We will now compare noise spectra with shot spectra, the attenuation spectrum, and the dominant frequencies in observed waves.

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