By Christopher J. Bickerton (auth.)

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Extra resources for European Union Foreign Policy: From Effectiveness to Functionality

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The ongoing and fierce debate around functionalism is about the level at which an explanation occurs: at the level of individuals or of collective entities such as states? Is the functionality of an action intended by those who Functionality in European Union Foreign Policy 19 carry it out or is it an unintended outcome, in the manner of Adam Smith's famous 'hidden hand'? (Ryan, 1970, pp. 172-196) The teleology of traditional functionalism stemmed from the conviction of early functionalists that the dynamics of international and regional cooperation contained within them the possibility of overcoming what David Mitrany described as 'the baffling division between the peoples of the world' (cited in Heartfield, 2007, p.

At a press conference in PriStina on the 19th February, Solana was asked about the EU's unity. He responded by saying that 'the EU is unified and we will send people on the ground on the part of the EU'. When pressed on the position of member states such as Cyprus, Spain and Romania, who had withheld their recognition of Kosovo, Solana said that: 'I cannot speak on behalf of the states, they know the situation and procedure in their own countries. The EU has taken a very important decision yesterday and the EU acted collectively' Functionality in European Union Foreign Policy 29 (BBC monitoring service, 2008; italics added).

Other analysts have commented on the generality of the ESS. Klaus Becher notes that 'while there is a habit of mind in Europe to label certain policy approaches as specifically European, such as the preference for non-military solutions and a rule-based, institutionalized, multilateral international system, there are few, if any democracies that would disagree with this "European" philosophy' (Becher, 2004, p. 355). The Norwegian neo-realist, Asle Toje, observes that there is no prioritizing of 'challenges' in the ESS.

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