By Carl F. Graumann (auth.), Joseph R. Royce, Leendert P. Mos (eds.)

THE FORMATIVE TENDENCY i've got frequently mentioned that during my paintings with members in treatment, and in my adventure in stumble upon teams, i've been ended in the con­ viction that human nature is basically confident. while, in a ther­ apeutic weather (which might be objectively outlined) someone turns into sharply conscious of extra of his or her inner experiencing and of the stimuli and calls for from the exterior global, therefore buying an entire variety of strategies, the individual has a tendency to maneuver towards turning into a socially positive organism. yet many are serious of this viewpoint. Why may still one of these confident course be saw purely in people? is not this simply natural op- · . ? timi sm. So particularly hesitantly, simply because i must draw at the paintings and considering others instead of by myself event, I should still wish to attempt to set this directional tendency in a wider context. I shall draw on my basic examining within the box of technology, yet I should still prefer to point out a different indebtedness to the paintings of Lancelot Whyte within the Universe of expertise (Harper and Row, 1974), the final ebook he wrote prior to his dying. notwithstanding the publication has flaws, in my judgment this historian has a few thought-provoking subject matters to boost. i've got realized from many others as well.

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Moreover, since only people bring evil into the world, would one really want to leave murder, rape, aggression, war, and so forth outside the scope of psychological investigation, even though hardly any psychologist would condone them? Certainly, HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY AND METAPSYCHOLOGY 27 psychologists want to be humane, but it is clear from the above examples that the intention to be humane is not sufficient. One would have to look at what one meant by the term-that is, exactly what one intended d(}-and then all the hoary difficulties of value enter in.

If that is true, how could I state earlier that it was an amorphous movement, or how could Royce (1972) claim that there is conceptual confusion in humanistic psychology? I would claim that both assertions are true once the next step is taken-that is, if one pursues what is meant by a better image of man or if one tries to see how one can be faithful to both a better image of man and the criteria for science. " Precisely what is meant by "human" in the expression "humanistic psychology" has not been clarified in a way that is acceptable to all of its proponents.

However, when it comes to the actual practice of research, it often uses the same general methodological tools that are used by traditional psychologists. , Kolton, 1973), but the majority of self-conscious research efforts fall in line with the critique. For example, Jourard (1971) found it necessary to use analyses of variance with his research on self-disclosure and Reed (1973) devised a dream recall rating scale. Hendrickson (1973), in dealing with high-school morale, found traditional definitions lacking and hence turned to humanistic-psychology literature for more relevant statements but then proceeded to construct a scale to measure morale by following Thurstone's technique.

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