By Umut Uzer

Turkey's overseas coverage is generally represented as basically peaceable, utilizing international relations and multilateralism within the solution of its conflicts with different states. right here, Umut Uzer bargains an important corrective to this average research via revealing the Kemalist impact in Turkey's nation ideology. This outlined the id of the country as Turkish, embracing either Turkish and Turkic peoples as "Turks," and leading to tasks in the direction of Turks dwelling past its borders and a extra engaged overseas coverage that ranged from declarations of aid for ethnic family outdoors Turkey to outright takeover of territory. targeting the annexation of Hatay from Syria in 1939, Turkey's involvement in Cyprus culminating in an army operation in 1974 and its coverage towards the Karabagh dispute among Azerbaijan and Armenia within the Nineteen Nineties, identification and Turkish international coverage is essential for all these drawn to heart East politics and diplomacy in addition to Turkey extra in particular.

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Rather, the power of a state is significant only when compared with the relative power of other states. 5 In other words, this state-centric approach regards states as major actors of the international system, and as rational unitary actors. E. H. ’ Therefore, it is essential to ensure that political decisions combine both moral and power elements. Having defined power as ‘an essential element of politics’, Carr goes on to talk about military and economic power, as well as the power to influence opinion.

Consequently, Kemalist nationalism will occupy the bulk of this chapter because it is the most relevant form of nationalism as far as Turkish foreign policy is concerned. Official nationalism and ethnic nationalism are successors of the Turkish nationalism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen- 38 THE THREE PATHS OF TURKISH NATIONALISM turies. Kemalist nationalism focused on the consolidation of the Turkish nation-state, whereas ethnic nationalism entailed unification of all the Turks of the world.

Furthermore, the fact that members of a nation do not know all or most of their co-nationals personally60 seems an unconvincing and inadequate reason to label the phenomenon ‘imagined’. However, in that he draws attention to the evolution of identities from the small scale to the larger allegiances is a serious contribution to the study of nationalism. 62 This again signifies the importance of Anthony Smith and the role of ethnicity in nationalism. Benedict Anderson criticizes Gellner for characterizing nationalism 28 STATE IDENTITY AND FOREIGN POLICY as ‘fabrication’ or based on ‘falsity’.

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