By Paulin Ismard

Le procès de Socrate est une des photos les plus célèbres de l'histoire de l'Athènes classique. Les guerres médiques ou les marbres du Parthénon en offrent le versant lumineux, los angeles condamnation du maître de Platon, elle, en incarne l. a. légende noire. Le plus souvent, l'événement est présenté comme l. a. faute impardonnable de l. a. démocratie athénienne, los angeles preuve d'une cité intolérante, persécutant ses élites intellectuelles. A l'opposé, les défenseurs de los angeles démocratie athénienne s'évertuent à en relativiser l. a. portée, en le réduisant à un incident, voire en justifiant l. a. condamnation du philosophe. C'est ainsi qu'au fil des âges, le procès de Socrate s'est transformé en procès de los angeles démocratie athénienne - et par extension, de l. a. démocratie elle-même. Ce livre entreprend d'écrire une histoire de cette démocratie à los angeles lumière du procès de 399, mais il va plus loin en étudiant les différentes facettes de l. a. subversion socratique, qui tiennent non seulement à los angeles philosophie politique de Socrate, mais à ses moeurs et à l'originalité de sa pédagogie. Enfin, le procès est inséparable des multiples relectures qui l'accompagnent depuis les premiers temps de l'ère chrétienne. Des Pères de l'Eglise qui faisaient du philosophe un précurseur du christianisme au "Socrate sans-culotte" de l. a. Révolution française, en passant par le "Saint-Socrate" d'Erasme ou le "patron des philosophes" construit par l. a. pensée des Lumières, c'est l'histoire de notre propre rapport à los angeles démocratie athénienne qui s'écrit.

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6. Human beings are finite. As a "being-in-the-world," we Epoché: The Photo 55 recognize that death is a "not-to-be- outstripped" (inevitable) possibility. Death as such is the possibility of the end of all possibilities. " As a "being-towards-death," as Heidegger would say, the human being becomes aware that she cannot have all the possibilities. Faced with the recognition of one's finitude, one also recognizes that one is always faced with choices. In making a choice, some one simultaneously eliminate thousands of other possible choices.

One cannot deny or understand nothing — something must be under consideration for thought to occur. In the presence of nothing, there is no person, no individual. 36 Chapter One (b) Transcendental Idealism “Everything which is and has reality for me, that is, for man, exists only in my own consciousness,” Husserl stated. According to Husserl, through reduction, the Phenomenological Ego can become and observer of itself, aware of itself, and self-conscious. Since we gain knowledge via this ego, we learn about the ego as we learn about the environment around us.

XXVI, p. 212). However, i t m a y b e n o t i c e d that Husserl does not naively take the existence of an extra-mental referent for granted. Instead, he asks which structures of consciousness entitle us to represent the world as containing particular objects transcending what is currently given to us in experience. Husserl can thus be read or at least be rationally reconstructed as both an early direct reference theorist and a nonnaive externalist on intentional content and respective meanings.

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