By John A. James

Postbellum fiscal switch within the usa required an effective procedure through which capital should be transferred to components the place it used to be really scarce. In assessing the constitution that developed to satisfy this desire, John James offers a brand new and convincing clarification of the forces underlying the mixing of separate and native funds markets to shape a countrywide market.

to appreciate the function of economic markets in the course of the interval, the writer examines the associations and operations of the banking process intimately. not like the now-prevailing view between students, Professor James reveals that the banking approach used to be fairly adaptable in responding to institutional constraints, and he focuses particularly at the function of the correspondent banking process. the second one a part of his booklet assesses the functionality of the industry and the forces selling swap throughout the interval. Drawing on a brand new and extra rigorously derived set of rates of interest, the writer checks competing hypotheses to give an explanation for integration and advances a extra passable replacement conception. He bargains the 1st smooth research of yank monetary associations of the interval among the Civil battle and the institution of the Federal Reserve method. In so doing, he provides to our wisdom of the ancient function of finance and capital in financial development.

Originally released in 1978.

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26 Figure 2 presents these estimates of regional short-term interest rates27 for country banks in the period 1888-1911. The regional interest rate series are weighted averages of the average rate on loans and discounts of country national banks by state, the weights being the relative sizes of the loan and discount portfolio. Figure 3 presents the movements of the differentials be­ tween the Southern, Midwestern, and Western series and the Nebraska, Kansas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma; Region VI—Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Idaho.

367. 34 Barnett, GROWTH OF THE BANKING SYSTEM companies were able to offer interest rates on demand de­ posits that most banks subject to reserve requirements could not meet. 36 Less than one hundred trust companies were in existence in 1888, but the number began to grow rapidly after 1900. By 1909 almost 1,100 trust companies were in operation, concentrated primarily in the East. 37 Relatively few trust companies were located in Western and Southern states, where the greatest expansion of the banking system and fall in interest rates oc­ curred.

Alcorn, The Duties and Liabilities of Bank THE INDIVIDUAL BANK Table 4 Sample National Bank Balance Sheet Assets Liabilities and Net Worth Cash Deposits Notes outstanding Due from banks Due to banks Bonds for circulation Capital Bonds for deposit Other stocks and bonds Surplus and undistributed profits Loans and discounts 5 percent redemption fund with Treasury Banking house and real estate The principal difference between this and a state bank bal­ ance sheet is the presence of entries pertaining to note issue.

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