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Yet a certain double standard prevails. Arms control has not been a consideration in the Soviet deployment of SS-20, -21 and -22 missiles. Even though self-restraint is in Western interest, the same should be demanded from the Warsaw Pact. ET missiles can be destabilizing in other respects too. The tempo of ET warfare is likely to be so fast and violent that little time will be left for reflection. 12 The temptation to conduct pre-emptive strikes is increased and thus also the likelihood of nuclear escalation.

In terms of the value the USSR would place on these targets (relative to ICBM silos and command-and-control facilities) one could argue that they are highly prized by the Soviet leadership - especially conventional forces and most particularly the Red Army. 3 The rationale here is that it is these forces (not strategic nuclear forces) that enable the Soviet leadership to dominate and suppress its own people and its allies. If one believes that retaliating against Soviet hard targets (silos and command-andcontrol facilities) with short warning time is important for deterrence, and that SLBM are inadequate in numbers or capabilities to substitute for ICBM, then the vulnerability of silobased ICBM may be important.

155mm precision-guided 5. Automated munitions (PGM). 6. Battlefteld target acquisition system. 7. Electronic jamming system for tactical aircraft. 8. Short-range anti-radiation missiles. 9. Artillery locating systems. 10. Stand-off surveillance/acquisition systems. 11. Self-protection system for battlefield helicopters. Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and the European Security Study (ESECS) group also believe that mobile targets can be successfully hit at this longer range. The missions necessary for the forward defence of Western Europe can be summarized as: - Counter-air; - Interdiction; - Attack on echeloned and mobile follow-on ground forces; - Defeating massed armour in the zone of contact.

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