By Panel for the Workshop on the Biodemography of Fertility and Family Behavior, National Research Council

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Population Studies 38:21-45. B. 1999 Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon. C. Rowe 1999 Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: Sex differences. Developmental Psychology 35:926-939. S. Goldberger 2002 Twin studies in behavioral research: A skeptical view. Theoretical Population Biology 61:83-95. National Research Council 1997 Between Zeus and the Salmon: The Biodemography of Longevity.

First, by their nature, estimates of heritability apply to genetic influences on individual differences within a population. ) tried to use the evidence of genetic influences on a trait (in his case intelligence) within a population to argue that it followed that it was highly likely that, when there were differences in the level of that trait between two populations, the explanation was likely to lie in genetics. Tizard (1975) showed the falsity of that argument by taking the example of human height.

Clearly, this does and can occur, but niche construction involves a two-way process that fundamentally changes the coevolution dynamics between genetic evolution and cultural change 30 OFFSPRING (Odling-Smee, 1996; see also Rutter and Silberg, 2002). Also, the term niche picking implies an active process that is governed by genes as well as a process that is adaptive. However, the evidence indicates that niche picking is not necessarily socially adaptive and not necessarily primarily driven by genes, although both will be the case in some instances (Rutter and Silberg, 2002).

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