By Frank Ellinger (auth.), Frank Ellinger (eds.)
The extraordinary function of this ebook is its insurance of the higher GHz area. even though, the newest applied sciences, functions and huge variety of circuits are mentioned. layout examples are supplied together with cookbook-like optimization innovations. This state of the art booklet is effective for researchers in addition to for engineers in undefined. in addition, the publication serves as fruitful foundation for lectures within the region of IC layout.
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Extra resources for Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Technologies
Experience has shown that it is mandatory to verify the computer-based optimisations by manual optimisations or first order hand calculations. Despite all the computer power available, the designer should have a profound theoretical background in circuit theory. , making the definition of optimisation goals and corresponding priorities challenging. Thus, in many cases, it may be reasonable to optimise the circuit manually. Simulations should take into account process variations and the impact of temperature changes.
A common source, cascode, or cascaded configuration is superior. 3 CAD Simulations Based on the circuit schematics and device models, CAD simulations are performed using software tools such as Agilent ADS (Advanced Design Simulator) or Cadence Virtuoso Spectre. g. the bias, element values, frequencies, stimuli powers and temperature. Optimisation routines can be fruitful to get the maximum out of the circuit. Gradient optimisation is well suited if the characteristics are monotone. Unfortunately, several local maxima may exist making gradient optimisation difficult.
By pulsing the modulated reflector, this jitter can be reduced. The corresponding circuit schematic is outlined in Fig. 11d. Note that at every switch-on, the oscillator frequency is coherent with respect to the input frequency. Consequently, the signal frequency is recovered at every pulse cycle. 5 Cell-ID A further simple approach is the positioning by means of the known location of the closest cellular base-stations together with signal strengths measurements. Depending on the density of base stations, this method may yield accuracies up to 10–500 m.