By L. N. Kogarko, V. A. Konova, M. P. Orlova, A. R. Woolley (auth.)

Alkaline rocks and carbonatites have the main assorted and severe compositions of all igneous rocks. This quantity describes the entire identified occurrences within the former USSR.

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Some pyroxenites are of exceptionally coarse grain size and these are enriched in titanomagnetite. The main minerals of these pyroxenites are diopside-augite, olivine and titanomagnetite with subordinate serpentine, phlogopite, pargasite, titanite, chlorite and calcite. The rocks of the third zone are cut by phlogopite-pyroxene rocks. The fourth zone, occupying the central part of the complex, has the most complicated structure and comprises coarsegrained pyroxenites, olivinites, sometimes containing melilite, calcite-amphibole-pyroxene rocks with nests of perovskite, and alkaline pegmatites, of a range of compositions, which cut the olivinites and pyroxenites extensively.

Apart from the predominant dolomite and fluorapatite the carbonatites also contain tremolite, hydrophlogopite, biotite and, as secondary minerals, calcite, quartz, magnetite, hydrogoethite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, titanite and accessory pyrochlore, natroniobite, zircon, dysanalyte, lueshite and phosphates, carbonates and fluocarbonates of rare earths. Three mineral associations, corresponding to three stages of carbonatite evolution, have been distinguished by Kukharenko et al. (1965). These are (a) zircon-apatite-dolomite, (b) pyrochlore-dolomite and (c) quartz-limonite with secondary phosphates and carbonates of rare earth elements.

28 KANDAGUBSKII 27 ELOVYI ISLAND (Elovaya) ................ Major faults 67°06'Ni 32°16'E Fig. 28 This occurrence is situated on the southern coast of the small bay of Kanda-guba on the White sea. 6 km2 , is partly covered by Quaternary sediments. According to geophysical data it has a structure which is close to vertical and it is considered to be the uppermost part of a larger intrusion. It has a zonal structure with small areas of apatitebearing ijolite in the centre, which change outwards to malignites and carbonatites.

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