By Lars-Inge Larsson (auth.), Lars-Inge Larsson (eds.)
Cell fusions are vital to fertilization, placentation, improvement of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defence method. also, mobile fusions perform tissue fix and will be very important to melanoma improvement, development and treatment. lots of elements keep an eye on phone fusions, together with receptors and ligands, membrane area organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins that carry membranes shut jointly. within the current quantity, we interrogate what mechanisms that could be vital to mobile fusions in mammals and what mechanisms that could be shared with decrease organisms and viruses. also, the significance of telephone fusions to the pathogenesis in addition to remedy of ailments is addressed.
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Additional resources for Cell Fusions: Regulation and Control
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are classified somewhat differently from exogenous retroviruses. ERVs are divided into three classes depending on their similarity to exogenous retroviruses (Fig. 6), originally based on endogenous retrovirus found in humans (HERV). The HERVs, which are related to gammaretroviruses, are classified as class I, the betaretroviruses related ERVs as class II, and the spumaviruses related ERVs within class III. Endogenous elements are also found in the epsilon-, alpha- and lentiviruses genus but none are human associated (Fig.
HERV-K related virus-like particle have been observed in germ-cell tumours (Bieda et al. 2001, Boller et al. 1983, Kurth et al. 1983), and while the HERV-K113 locus was shown to be capable of producing intact particles of retroviral morphology in cell lines derived from human germ-cell tumours (Boller et al. 2008), they were not found to be infectious. Nevertheless, trans-complementation and recombination of human HERV-K loci can generate functional and infectious HERV-K virus particles, indicating that human cells still have the potential to produce infectious retrovirus particles (Dewannieux et al.
While the overall membrane-fusion machinery is quite similar, the exact modes of control, which are now beginning to be uncovered, show wide specialization for different groups of retroviruses. Such control mechanisms also impact on the regulation of the cell–cell fusiogenic activity of retroviral envelope proteins in the plasma membrane of an infected cell. The family Retroviridae comprises seven genera, alpharetroviruses, betaretroviruses, gammaretroviruses, deltaviruses, epsilonretroviruses, lentiviruses, and spumaviruses (Fig.