By R. Granit (auth.), R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, J. B. Redford (eds.)
R. B. Stein division of body structure, collage of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada The impetus for this quantity and the convention that gave upward push to it was once the sensation that stories on motor regulate had reached a turning aspect. in recent times, reports on motor devices and muscle receptors became more and more specific. makes an attempt to combine those reviews into quantitative versions for the spinal keep watch over of posture have seemed and initial makes an attempt were made to incorporate the main direct supraspinal pathways into those types (see for instance the chapters via Nashner and Melvill Jones et al. during this volume). hence, we felt that the time used to be ripe to summarize those advancements in a manner that can be worthy not just to easy clinical scientists, but additionally to clinicians facing problems of motor regulate, and to bioengineers trying to construct units to aid or substitute basic keep watch over. during the last few years, computing device equipment have additionally made attainable more and more targeted reviews of mammalian locomotion, and enhanced physiological and pharmacological reports have seemed. There appears to be like virtually common contract now that the styles for locomotion are generated within the spinal twine, and they will be generated with little, if any, phasic sensory details (see chapters by way of Grillner and Miller et al. ). This concludes a protracted controversy on no matter if chains of reflexes or significant circuits generate stepping styles. the character of the development turbines in mammals is still vague, yet invertebrate experiences on locomotion have lately made amazing advances.
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Extra info for Control of Posture and Locomotion
In this respect the lumbrical muscle seems to resemble, for instance, the human finger muscle recently studied by Milner- Brown et al. (1973; for other examples of contractions associated with marked changes in motor unit firing rate see Adrian and Bronk, 1929). In the lumbrical muscle, firing rate modulation was of importance also over a range of tensions below that at which all motor units had been recruited (Fig. 1B-C). In this respect, the lumbrical muscle appears to differ markedly from cat soleus activated by the stretch reflex (cf.
In C, the stimulation as well as the resulting impulse activity of a small motor unit had started already before the beginning of the illustrated record. Occurrence of impulses in this small motor unit (checked in simultaneous record at high gain) indicated by vertical bar s above record (dotted bars: probable coincidence of spikes from smallest and larger motor unit). 16 sec after the beginning of the record. Spikes in A-C retouched. The gradual increase in spike size which accompanies enhancement of tension in A and C might have been due to a change in the recording situation, caused by the movement of the muscle.
Repetitive impulse firing: comparisons between neurone models based on 'voltage clamp equations' and spinal motoneurones. Acta Physiol. Scand. 87, 40-56. B. , 1965. Properties of motor units in a homogenous red muscle (soleus) of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 71-84. B. , 1973. Changes in firing rate of human motor units during linearly changing voluntary contractions. J. Physiol. 230, 371-390. H. , 1969. The effects of length and stimulus rate on tension in the isometric cat soleus muscle. J. Physiol.