By Donald S. Orth (ed.), Jon J. Kabara (ed.), Stephen P. Denyer (ed.), S. K. Tan (ed.)
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Additional resources for Cosmetic and Drug Microbiology
Genetic engineering is being used in the manufacture of raw materials, hormones, and drug-active ingredients, and in the synthesis of improved antibiotics. Cosmetic microbiology is borrowing information from the food industry to address preservation issues. Application of the principles of preservation, or ‘‘hurdle technology,’’ is helping formulation scientists ﬁnd ways to reduce levels of preservatives or make products that are self-preserving. During the past decade, there has been increasing emphasis on validating methods to make sure that they reliably measure what they are intended to measure.
3. 4. the quality control of raw materials, the quality of water used as a vehicle in many products, environmental control, including that of personnel, the absence of speciﬁc organisms from certain products (in many European countries, but not the United Kingdom, numerical limits were laid down for the maximum permitted numbers of organisms), 5. suitable containers and closures, and 6. the need for adequate preservation and the development of Antimicrobial Preservative Effectiveness tests (section ‘‘Evaluation of Preservative Efﬁcacy’’).
The BP 1914 (35) contained just ﬁve injectable products, the hypodermic (subcutaneous) injections of apomorphine, cocaine, ergot, morphine, and strychnine. ’’ For the cocaine preparation, salicylic acid was dissolved in the hot water and cocaine hydrochloride added when the solution had cooled. There was no sterilization process per se, no preservative (although the injection of ergot contained 1% w/v phenol), and no mention of containers and closures. Some improvements were apparent in the BPC 1923 (36).