By Sara Scalenghe

Actual, sensory, and psychological impairments can effect an individual's prestige in society up to the extra conventional different types of gender, type, faith, race, and ethnicity. This used to be very true of the early smooth Arab Ottoman global, the place being judged capable or disabled impacted each element of a person's existence, together with functionality of spiritual ritual, marriage, task possibilities, and the facility to shop for and promote estate. Sara Scalenghe's publication is the 1st at the background of either actual and psychological disabilities within the heart East and North Africa, and the 1st to envision incapacity within the non-Western global sooner than the 19th century. not like earlier scholarly works that learn incapacity as mentioned in non secular texts resembling the Qur'an and the Hadith, this examine makes a speciality of representations and classifications of incapacity and impairment throughout a variety of biographical, criminal, scientific, and divinatory fundamental resources. As such, it is a socio-cultural heritage that seeks to provide an explanation for how blindness, deafness and muteness, intersex stipulations, and likely psychological impairments have been understood and skilled in a particular Arab-Islamic context in the geographical region that comes with present-day Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine/Israel below Ottoman rule within the early glossy interval.

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28 Disability in the Ottoman Arab World, 1500–1800 The renowned physician Ibn Sallum (d. 1670/1) also dedicated a section of his medical treatise to various ailments of the ear. He provides the following description of deafness: “It is of two types: either severe, in which there is no hearing, or mild, in which hearing is possible. It can be either in the ear itself or in the nerves, if an obstruction occurs in them. tarash may be caused by a blow, a fall, or, citing Hippocrates, a corrupt humor (the choleric humor in particular).

We know that he was born and educated in Aleppo, where he practiced medicine and served as chief of physicians. At some point in his career he moved to Istanbul, where Sultan Mehmet IV (r. 1648–1687) appointed him Chief Physician. There is some evidence that he also received judicial appointments, and that he died in Yenis¸ehir in 1670 or 1671. Although not nearly as prolific an author as Da’ud al-Antaki, Ibn Sallum’s contributions to Ottoman medical knowledge were equally if not more significant, for he is credited with introducing early modern European Paracelsian “chemical medicine” into Islamic medicine.

36 The jurists’ stance on this issue is intriguing, because it might have paved the way for the creation of a deaf community who prayed together using signs. To date, however, no documentary evidence has been unearthed, if it indeed exists, proving that deaf-mutes gathered for prayer in specific mosques, houses, or 35 36 Kayr al-Din al-Ramli (d. , 1857), 1:9. , 9–10. According to the mufti Isma‘il Ibn al-Ha’ik, ¯ into a ghayn, not if he a man was althagh only if he transformed the letter ra’ ¯ clearly.

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