By Alan E. Branch F.C.I.T., F.I.Ex. (auth.)

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Kes for better stowage of heavy bagged cargo, such as sugar and cement, as the weight pressure in the lower holds, which sometimes causes the bags to split, is reduced. Moreover, if a heavy cargo is loaded, the 'tween decks enable it to be distributed throughout the ship. This has the effect of raising the centre of gravity thereby lessening the stability of the ship. A 'tween deck vessel of modern design is found in Fig. 3. Again it is the Freedom type and has machinery and accommodation aft. It has four cargo holds and is of 14 000 dwt.

No 5 i : , 'II' ___ JuL ___ N~ 4 :1. No 3 -r- --r-l rr-T1r-r-: No6 : Fig. 2 Combi King 45 - flexible container/bulk carrier. This vessel of 45 000 dwt has a grain capacity of 58 700m 3 or a container capacity of2127 TEUs. It is suitable for worldwide trading in the bulk carriage of grain, coal, ore, bauxite, phosphates, packaged timber, standard pipe lengths and containers. e. grain, timber, ore, coal etc. Another example of a modern tramp vessel and of Japanese build is the Freedom-type tonnage.

Often when a vessel is uneconomical to operate in one trade, it can be converted for other uses. This may involve lengthening the ship by inserting a portion amidships. In the past decade many oil tankers, too small and slow for the petroleum trade, have been lengthened and converted to ore carriers and other trades. This trend also involving other cargo tonnage, will continue as the economics of higher capacity ships becomes increasingly attractive. More recently some ore carriers have been fitted with demountable skeleton decks and ramp facilities to convey trade cars.

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