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Plane wave An electromagnetic wave with infinite transverse dimensions. It is an idealized model of a light beam where the finite transverse extent of a real beam is ignored for mathematical expediency; this works well if the beam diameter is large on the scale of the wavelength. The planes of constant phase are parallel everywhere. Reflection grating A grating where the diffracted wave of interest emerges in the space of the cover material. Surface-relief grating A periodic corrugated surface.

Hawkes, P. W. (1970). Adv. Electron. , Suppl. 7. Academic Press, New York. Hawkes, P. , ed. (1973). “Image Processing and Computer-Aided Design in Electron Optics,” Academic Press, New York. Hawkes, P. , ed. (1980). “Computer Processing of Electron Microscope Images,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York. Hawkes, P. , ed. (1982). “Magnetic Electron Lenses,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York. Hawkes, P. , and Kasper, E. (1989, 1994). “Principles of Electron Optics,” Academic Press, San Diego.

8 nm realized by two-dimensional fill-factor-modulated subwavelength grating. The global grating periods are x = 1900 nm and y = 380 nm. The sampling period ( x,s ) is 380 nm. , and Launois, H. (1998). ” Opt. Lett. ] P1: GPJ/GLQ P2: FJU Final Pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN004I-174 June 8, 2001 17:22 437 Diffractive Optical Components grating made of TiO2 . 8 nm) is diffracted into five forward diffracted orders. Each x-period ( x ) is subdivided into five fill-factor modulated subwavelength gratings with a sampling period ( x,s ) equal to 380 nm to simulate the blazed grating profile.

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