By Colin Baird

This consultant to environmental chemistry covers significant topical matters, together with the greenhouse impression, the ozone layer, insecticides, and air and water toxins. The textual content bargains an lively problem-solving method, with workouts included all through every one bankruptcy.

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Indd 21 2/2/12 11:19 AM 22 BOX 1-1 Chapter 1 Stratospheric Chemistry: The Ozone Layer The Rates of Free-Radical Reactions T he rate of a given chemical reaction is affected by a number of parameters, most notably the magnitude of the activation energy required before the reaction can occur. Thus reactions with appreciable activation energies are inherently very slow processes and can often be ignored compared to alternative, faster processes for the chemicals involved. In gas-phase reactions involving simple free radicals as reactants, the activation energy exceeds that imposed by their endothermicity by only a small amount.

Source: T. E. Graedel and P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric Change: An Earth System Perspective (New York: W. H. 4 Filtering of Sunlight’s UV Component by Atmospheric O2 and O3 Extent of absorption Extent of absorption As a result of its light-absorption characteristics, the O2 gas that lies above the stratosphere filters from sunlight most of the UV light from 120 to 220 nm; the remainder of the light in this range is filtered by the O2 in the stratosphere. Also fortunately for life on the surface, ultraviolet light that has wavelengths shorter than 120 nm is filtered in and above the stratosphere by O2 and other constituents of air such as N2.

5 ϫ 10Ϫ15 moleculesϪ1 cm3 secϪ1.

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