By Mark A. Noll
This choice of all new essays via best historians deals a detailed examine the connections among American Protestants and cash within the Antebellum interval. throughout the first a long time of the hot American state, cash was once far and wide at the minds of church leaders and plenty of in their fans. monetary questions figured frequently in preaching and pamphleteering, they usually contributed enormously to perceptions of morality either private and non-private. in truth, funds was once consistently a spiritual query. as a result, argue the authors of those essays, it truly is most unlikely to appreciate broader cultural advancements of the period--including political developments--without contemplating faith and economics jointly. In God and Mammon, numerous essays research the ways that the church buildings raised funds after the tip of multinational positioned a cease to kingdom investment, similar to the gathering of pew rents, lotteries, and free-will choices, which simply got here later and initially have been used just for benevolent reasons. different essays examine the position of cash and markets within the upward push of Christian voluntary societies. nonetheless others learn the inter-denominational strife, documenting widespread accusations that theological mistakes resulted in the misuse of cash and the confidence of wealth. Taken jointly, the essays supply crucial historical past to a subject that keeps to loom huge and generate controversy within the Protestant neighborhood in the USA.
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Extra resources for God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790-1860
Sometimes described as rationalchoice theory, this interpretation posits a market in religious goods that responds to the quality and quantity of competition. One of the ﬁrst historians to use such reasoning was Terry Bilhartz in his study of religion in early national Baltimore. As Bilhartz describes the situation, the “pluralistic society” that existed after the Revolution meant that adherence to a particular church was a free decision. ”74 Roger Finke, a leading sociologist in propounding rational-choice theory, carries the analysis even further: This surge in revivals and the growth of organized religion was due to a shift in supply, not demand.
19 Shipping declined in importance as an industry, and the domestic market became more important than the international market. Service industries to facilitate manufacturing also appeared with increasing frequency. The 1830s saw increasing prosperity for all three regions, with each continuing previous economic patterns. The South relied on cotton, the West grew food products for the North and the South, and the North produced manufactured goods for the South and the West. The rising prosperity of each region stimulated growth in the other regions.
The West also expanded during these years, and population grew rapidly as many settlers moved into the region from the eastern seaboard. 5 million acres of land were sold in the Northwest Territories. Demand was high for farm products from the region. Improvements in transportation beneﬁted the region greatly, beneﬁts that were, however, considerably slowed by a ﬁnancial crisis in 1821–22. In the next general period, 1823–43, critical changes occurred in American economic history, which Douglass North has helpfully summarized as follows: If one were to date the beginning of acceleration in the economy’s growth and the years when industrialization began, it would be during this period.