By Naeem Inayatullah

Diplomacy and the matter of distinction has built out of the experience that IR as a self-discipline doesn't examine the standard of cultural interactions that form, and are formed by way of, the altering constructions and methods of the foreign process. during this paintings, the authors re-imagine IR as a uniquely positioned website for the examine of modifications as geared up explicitly round the exploration of the relation of wholes and components and sameness and difference-and continually the only with regards to the opposite.

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The task of civil authority is to secure the life and possessions of the population, not to compel 36 • INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE PROBLEM OF DIFFERENCE religious belief. Indeed, given that belief is not capable of being forced (the church being a “free and voluntary society”), the state’s penal methods are wholly inappropriate to the task (Locke, 1993:396, 420; see Waldron, 1988:69). Nor are rulers better able to discern religious truth; their attempts to coerce religious compliance are more than likely to disturb the peace by fostering resentment and rebellion (Locke, 1993:407, 428).

The intellectual debate between Protestant Reformers and their Counter-Reformation opponents had collapsed, and there was no alternative to the sword and the torch. Yet the more brutal the warfare became, the more firmly convinced the proponents of each religious system were that their doctrines must be proved correct, and that their opponents were stupid, malicious, or both. We should not be surprised, then, that the barbarities were unspeakable, of a kind some trace to that time (Langer, 1980:101), yet clearly recognizable in events of recent decades.

20 Locke thus envisions a world of bounded territorial states, each containing a civil society in which landed property is the distinctively civilized form of entitlement and the industrious property owner is the epitome of a civilized citizen. Locke defines Amerindian societies by comparison. 21 Indians appear in Locke’s account merely as hunters and gatherers (Locke, 1988:II, 289). The consequence is that, though they may claim property in what they hunt and gather, their lack of a settled, agricultural life (in a European mode) allows them no similar claim to the “Earth it self ” (Locke, 1988:II, 290).

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