By Heping Zhang, Yimin Cai

The ebook summarizes the newest study and advancements in dairy biotechnology and engineering. It presents a strategic technique for readers in terms of basic learn and useful paintings with lactic acid micro organism. The ebook covers each point from identity, ecology, taxonomy and commercial use. All participants are specialists who've titanic event within the corresponding examine box. The publication is meant for researchers within the human, animal, and meals sciences on the topic of lactic acid micro organism. Dr. Heping Zhang is a Professor on the Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering Ministry of schooling, internal Mongolia Agricultural collage, China. Dr. Yimin Cai works in cattle and atmosphere department, Japan foreign learn middle for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Japan.

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2011). In this study, the partial sequences of two housekeeping genes, recA and rpoB, were obtained from type strains of genus Lactococcus, and the results showed that the rpoB and recA genes could be useful for differentiation of species within the genus Lactococcus (Wang et al. 2009). Using an approach called multilocus sequence typing (MLST), researchers performed DNA sequence analysis in several housekeeping genes or other protein-coding gene sequences to discriminate closely related species and analyse the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

Uvarum and L. vini (Fig. 5). As with the L. 2). The GC content ranges between 32 and 44 mol%. Each species produces L(+)-lactic acid or both L(+)- and D(−)-lactic acids, but no one produces the D(−)-isomer exclusively. They are all either Lys-D-Asp or meso-Dpm-direct (Hammes and Hertel 2009). Interestingly, this group includes the majority of the motile Lactobacillus species,such as L. agilis, L. aquaticus, L. capillatus, L. ghanensis, L. mali, L. nagelii, L. oeni, L. ruminis, L. sucicola, L. satsumensis, L.

Collinoides, L. kimchicus, L. odoratitofui, L. paracollinoides and L. similis. 5 mol%. All species in this group are able to form D(−)-lactic acid and three species also produce the L(+) isomer (Hammes and Hertel 2009). 8 Lactobacillus fructivorans Group The Lactobacillus fructivorans group comprises five species: L. florum, L. fructivorans, L. homohiochii, L. lindneri and L. sanfranciscensis. The majority of species are OHE, excect for L. homohiochii which is FHE. The GC content of species in this group is between 35 and 42 mol% and they are either Lys-D-Asp or Lys-Ala peptidoglycan types (Salvetti et al.

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