By Manuel Cardona, Gernot Güntherodt, M. Cardona, G. Güntherodt, B. Hillebrands, G. Schaack

This can be the 7th quantity of a well-established sequence within which specialist practitioners speak about topical points of sunshine scattering in solids. Emphasis is put on digital excitations among crystal-field cut up degrees of transition-metal and rare-earth ions in crystals, between them high-Tc superconductors and magnetic excitations that seem in superlattices containing magnetic metals. The contents of this quantity back demonstrates the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy for the research and characterization of this type of fabrics. will probably be valuable to complex scholars and to all researchers who observe Raman spectroscopy of their paintings.

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Extra info for Light Scattering in Solids VII: Crystal-Field and Magnetic Excitations

Example text

Since two-photon absorption and electronic Raman scattering are closely related processes, pertinent theoretical investigations in one field can be easily applied to the other. A calculation of the scattering cross sections (s. 10). Considering the complexity of the ions under consideration, the summation over the matrix elements D with the intermediate states I1) is usually not a practical course of action. A rather crude approximation often made is to use the closure relation ~ 1 D s l l) (llDl = D s D I , which is equivalent to lumping together all intermediate states II) at the same energy.

The energy shifts induced by mode coupling have to be taken properly into account when adjusting simple theoretical models for the uncoupled excitations to the experimental data. These topics will be covered in Sects. 4. 3], which assumes a nondegenerate ground state and off-resonant intermediate states in the scattering process, may then be invalid. Under such conditions, asymmetric scattering tensors may be encountered even for 26 G. 5 nm 70 XZ (b) tt I 5O b- 411 I00 K 30 j ,-1 $0 K 20 K 50 10 =) 100 150 200 250 RAMANSHIFT ( cm"1) 300 0 i ~ l 50 100 150 , e 200 , l__ 250 TEMPERATURE ( K ) Fig.

I . ) = e 2 E { es . Dyt eL . 13) Assuming localized excitations for simplicity, the electronic susceptibility of the crystal is (X) = ~(as'i')/e0 r The tensors (c~) or (X) are asymmetric. 3] and involves the isotropic part of the tensor (X~ = 89 + X~y + X~)). It corresponds to the socalled polarized Raman scattering ( x x , yy, z z ) . The rest of the symmetric ten+ sor causes symmetric depolarized (quadrupolar) scattering, X8~ = 89 2 Raman Scattering by Crystal-Field Excitations 33 ~) - X , ~o ~,~,.

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