By Mikko Yrjönsuuri

Relevant issues in medieval common sense are right here taken care of in a fashion that is congenial to the trendy reader, with no compromising ancient reliability. The achievements of medieval common sense are made to be had to a much broader philosophical public then the medievalists themselves. The 3 genres of logica moderna bobbing up in a later center a long time are lined: duties, insolubles and results - the first time those were handled in the sort of unified means. The articles on responsibilities examine the function of logical consistence in medieval disputation thoughts. these on insolubles pay attention to medieval recommendations to the Liar Paradox. there's additionally a scientific account of how medieval authors defined the logical content material of an inference, and the way they proposal that the validity of an inference can be assured.

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Technically this is achieved by making the assignment independent of the world at which one evaluates, effectively making variables rigid designators. Using wildcard assignment we can formalize Quine’s example in dynamic term-modal logic with the following formulas. (3) (4) x :=? Px x :=? Px where the difference is also a matter of changing the denotation of x before or after processing the modality as well. This notation makes clear that both Stalnaker and Thomasan and Quine give examples of the same phenomenon.

The interpretations of ‘actually’ in Ramachandran (1989), Forbes (1982), and follow-up work by these authors resemble this approach. References Patrick Blackburn [2006]: “Arthur Prior and Hybrid Logic”. Synthese, 150: 329–372. Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke and Yde Venema [2001]: Modal Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. David Bostock [1997]: Intermediate Logic. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Torben Braüner and Silvio Ghilardi [2006]: “First-order Modal Logic”. In Patrick Blackburn, Johan van Benthem and Frank Wolter (Eds) Handbook of Modal Logic, Dordrecht: Elsevier, 549–620.

This would mean using different expressions to pick out the two Alice counterparts at t. Of course it is not enough to simply use new names, say, ‘Jennifer’ and ‘Natalie’. We also have to say that Jennifer and Natalie are, in a sense, just Alice. That is, they are both counterparts of Alice. The problem is that in the language of quantified hybrid logic one can’t (in any ordinary way) express things like ‘at t, there are two counterparts of Alice’, or ‘Natalie at t is a counterpart of Alice at t ’.

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