By Konstantin Nossov
Utilizing archaeological proof and first-hand assets, Konstantin Nossov charts the background of the medieval Russian castle from its early beginnings till the 14th century.
According to Russian legend, in advert 862, the Slav tribes of what's now eu Russia invited a few Scandinavian princes to rule over them. In advert 882, Prince Oleg united those kingdoms because the feudal kingdom of Kievan Rus, by means of construction a sequence of payment and border fortifications, together with the Zmievy Valy (Snake Ramparts), to guard opposed to overseas invasion.
The upward push of feudalism in the course of the eleventh century observed the advance of person fortified websites to the detriment of the prolonged border defenses. as a result, Mongol hordes poured over the border, introducing the siege war strategies of the East, and seriously influencing the fortification types thereafter.
The upward push of Muscovy within the fourteenth century observed an greater function for Moscow and the Kremlin, which used to be rebuilt in stone reflecting its elevated significance.
This ebook brings most of these varied strands jointly right into a finished quantity at the fortifications of Russia from the early days of the Kievan Rus' till the basis of the fashionable country in 1480.
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Additional info for Medieval Russian Fortresses AD 862-1480 (Fortress, Volume 61)
In 1465–67 the threat of invasion made the authorities encircle the furthest settlements with wooden walls, including those on the other bank of the River Pskova. In 1481 these wooden fortiﬁcations were replaced by stone. In the 16th century all the fortiﬁcations of the possad became stone. Many towers and large sections of the walls of these urban fortiﬁcations survive to this day. com The living sites The largest part of any city was taken up by the dvors – the estates of princes, boyars, and bishops, and the courtyards of common freeborn citizens.
Methods of construction 34 Logs in wooden cell walls were generally joined ‘v oblo’, that is with the ends of the logs sticking out. This method was used alongside the ‘v lapu’ method, without the ends sticking out. The latter was particularly suitable for polygonal towers where the angle between logs was over 90 degrees. This method of joining logs can be seen on a discovered fragment of a tower of the Moscow Kremlin built of oak wood in 1339–40. The angle between the logs is 135 degrees here, which allows us to assume that the tower was octagonal.
The second half of the 13th century saw a growth of free-standing towers in the fortresses of the Galich-Volhynia principality, which came under the inﬂuence of its western neighbours Poland and Hungary. These towers were placed inside the walls and near to the side of the fortress most vulnerable to attack. They served concurrently as watchtowers, a second line of defence allowing ﬁre to be brought to bear upon the assailants, as points for directing defensive operations, and as the place of ﬁnal refuge if the enemy broke into the fortress.