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And Delseny, M. (2002). Flanking sequence tags in Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion lines: a pilot study. Crit. Rev. Biol. 325: 773-780. F. A. Development, identification, and characterization of a glyphosate-tolerant soybean line. Crop Sci. 35: 1451-1461. , Hatziloukas, E. S. (1996). Transgenic crop resistance to bacteria. Field Crops Res. 45: 85-97. , Schmid, A. P. (2002). Biodegradation, biotransformation, and biocatalysis (B). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 4699-4709. , Kumaran, M. and Sundaresan, V.

Physical methods comprise electroporation, particle guns, etc. html). -- Ib. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ) Ia. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer I. Viral gene transfer - - Methods (a) Bacterial colonization (b) Induction of bacterial virulence (c) Generation of TDNA (d) T-DNA transfer (e) Integration of TDNA into plant genome Description of Method - Non-toxic to people - Specific activity of Bf - No killing of beneficial insects - Reduced usage of conventional insecticides - Reduced requirement for energy - Integration of low numbers of gene copies occurs in plant chromosomes - Relatively large segments of DNA can be transferred with little rearrangement Advantages Susceptible to degradation by sunlight - High specific insect activity may limit its use - Bt products have shorter shelf life than other insecticides - Environmental advantages - Strongly dependent on: - Stage of tissue development - Initial level of A.

Plant Biol. 6: 343350. B. A. (1969). Bacterial attachment to a specific wound site as an essential stage in tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 97: 620628. J. and Sessa, G. (2003). Understanding the function of plant disease resistance proteins. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54: 23-61. A. (1998). Functional genomics: Probing plant gene function and expression with transposons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; 95: 2021-2026. W. and Stalker DM. Metabolism of the herbicide bromoxynil by Klebsiella pnezlmoniae subsp.

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