By Noritaka Mizuno

Filling a niche within the present literature, this finished reference provides all very important catalyst periods, together with steel oxides, polyoxometalates, and zeolites. Readers will locate the following every little thing they should be aware of -- from constitution layout to characterization, and from immobilization to commercial processes.A actual must-have for somebody operating during this key know-how.

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Additional info for Modern Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalysis: Design, Reactions and Characterization

Sample text

This will lead to over-oxidation with the resulting energy release triggering re-crystallization of the amorphous oxide and hence causing deactivation; hence there is a clear optimum of defects in a catalyst that seems to be much closer to nano-sized well-ordered entities rather than to highly disordered or amorphous solids. The enormous body of experimental observations [16, 25, 54, 80, 87, 113, 118, 141–143] on oxygen ion diffusion in conjunction with selective oxidation does not, however, allow us to conclude directly that this oxygen is relevant for catalytic selective oxidation under conditions of an oxygen chemical potential that is equal to or larger than the decomposition potential of the catalyst; such conditions always apply when gas-phase oxygen is co-fed with the organic substrate, and usually in stoichiometric excess over the desired extent of oxidation.

We have to assume that this also will be happening in proportion to the performance, as catalysis will provide the energy source driving the transformation. This simple concept can explain the experimental observation of the apparently beneficial character of several phases cooperating in a reaction: the detection of a phase mixture with the extent of mixing being proportional to the activity is an indication of the progression of the transformation of the initial single phase pre-catalyst via its active state into a deactivated multi-phase form.

A literature compilation [72] of data suggests two sites and a competition between partial and total oxidation via direct and intermediate deep oxidation. 5 support this view. 5(a) one observes, under kinetically relevant conditions of below 10% conversion, opposing trends for total and partial oxidation where not only the sign of the trend but also the shape of the curve indicate that different sites and different limiting factors operate in this reaction. The side product acetic acid is also not a direct precursor to total combustion.

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