By Greg Restall

Philosophical good judgment has been, and is still, a motive force in the back of a lot development and improvement in philosophy extra generally. This assortment by means of up-and-coming philosophical logicians offers with a huge diversity of themes, together with, for instance, proof-theory, likelihood, context-sensitivity, dialetheism and dynamic semantics.

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Technically this is achieved by making the assignment independent of the world at which one evaluates, effectively making variables rigid designators. Using wildcard assignment we can formalize Quine’s example in dynamic term-modal logic with the following formulas. (3) (4) x :=? Px x :=? Px where the difference is also a matter of changing the denotation of x before or after processing the modality as well. This notation makes clear that both Stalnaker and Thomasan and Quine give examples of the same phenomenon.

The interpretations of ‘actually’ in Ramachandran (1989), Forbes (1982), and follow-up work by these authors resemble this approach. References Patrick Blackburn [2006]: “Arthur Prior and Hybrid Logic”. Synthese, 150: 329–372. Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke and Yde Venema [2001]: Modal Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. David Bostock [1997]: Intermediate Logic. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Torben Braüner and Silvio Ghilardi [2006]: “First-order Modal Logic”. In Patrick Blackburn, Johan van Benthem and Frank Wolter (Eds) Handbook of Modal Logic, Dordrecht: Elsevier, 549–620.

This would mean using different expressions to pick out the two Alice counterparts at t. Of course it is not enough to simply use new names, say, ‘Jennifer’ and ‘Natalie’. We also have to say that Jennifer and Natalie are, in a sense, just Alice. That is, they are both counterparts of Alice. The problem is that in the language of quantified hybrid logic one can’t (in any ordinary way) express things like ‘at t, there are two counterparts of Alice’, or ‘Natalie at t is a counterpart of Alice at t ’.

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