By Philoponus

In at the Soul 2.1-6, Aristotle differs from Plato in his account of the soul, through tying it to the physique. The soul is the life-manifesting capacities that all of us have and that distinguish residing issues, and clarify their behaviour. He defines soul and existence by means of connection with the capacities for utilizing nutrition to take care of constitution and reproduce, for perceiving and needing, and for rational suggestion. Capacities need to be outlined via connection with the items to which they're directed. The 5 senses, for instance, are outlined through connection with their gadgets that are basically varieties like color. And in notion we're acknowledged to obtain those varieties with out topic. Philoponus is familiar with this reception now not physiologically because the eye jelly's taking over color patches, yet 'cognitively', like Brentano, who a lot later idea that Aristotle used to be treating the kinds as intentional items. Philoponus is the shopper of non-physiological interpretations, that are nonetheless an issue of controversy this present day.

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Others besides these [have] only smell. They say, at least, that certain molluscs, such as clams, go after bait, following by smell. 105 But if anything shares in sight it necessarily also shares in the rest. Why is it, then, that when talking about whole powers106 he starts from what is last and less estimable, whereas with parts he travels in the opposite direction, and makes his start from what is first and more estimable? To this some people say that in his teaching he has mixed both routes, in the case of whole powers having started from what is last and more imperfect, in the case of parts, from what is primary and more perfect.

It is not hard, he says, in the case of some powers of the soul, to see that they are not separated in place. With plants when they are divided you will find in each of the cuttings both the nourishing [power] and the augmenting and the generative, so the soul in plants is one in act but many in potentiality, since when the plant is divided in each of the divisions the form of the vegetative soul can be seen perfect. So earlier it was one in number, before the division, but after the division there are produced several in number, though [they are] one in form.

But even if each of these powers is a life, still, he says, the nourishing, being the last of all, can also be separate from these, whereas they are not apart from it. And he does well to add ‘in the case of mortals’. For in the case of divine beings, since augmentation and diminution are not there, the nourishing power is useless; but in the case of mortals, [235] for this very reason that they are mortal, it is impossible that the better power of soul should come to be unless there are the more defective – and also for the reasons that have often been stated.

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