By J M Waller; J M Lenné; S J Waller

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To ensure survey objectives can be met, the planning process should take account of all four stages of the survey: 1. 2. 3. 4. Planning: decide what data are required. Sampling and collection: the gathering of the data. Analysis: conversion of the data into accessible information. Report: use of the information to achieve the original objective. If necessary, survey objectives can be modified during stages 1, 3 or 4, but such flexibility is difficult, if not impossible, during the sampling and collection stage.

1987) Crop Loss Assessment and Pest Management. APS Press, St Paul, Minnesota, USA, 270 pp. J. and Holderness, M. (1998) Plant Clinic Handbook. IMI Technical Handbook No. 3. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 94 pp. S. S. C. James2 1 Monsanto Company, Kings Court II Building, 2129 Chino 2 Roces Avenue, Makati City, Philippines; ISAAA AmeriCenter, c/o Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Introduction Plant diseases were first studied because of the yield losses they cause, yet the development of techniques and programmes for estimating these losses have been relatively neglected compared to other specializations in plant pathology.

Powdery mildew Downy mildew Virus, systemic fungal infection Virus, etc. Fusarium, some viruses, smuts Systemic fungal infection, some bacteria and viruses Agrobacterium Fusarium, Verticillium dahliae Secondary symptom of root rot, vascular disease or virus Powdery mildew Downy mildew Rust Elsinoë, Sphaceloma Bacteria Cercospora, Drechslera, Corynespora, etc. 1. 23 Continued Disease symptom irregular, containing dark-fruiting bodies irregular large, starting at leaf edge with water-soaked margins marginal scorch with chlorosis and wilting Malformation stunted, often chlorotic chlorotic mottling, mosaic, vein banding, etc.

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