By Peter Sluglett, Stefan Weber
This quantity honours the paintings of Abdul-Karim Rafeq, the most important historian of Ottoman Syria. Rafeqs valuable contribution to the learn of the social background of Syria among the 16th and 19th centuries lies in his pioneering use of the assets of the Islamic court docket documents, the sijill?t>/i> within the ma?kama al-shar?iyya, for the writing of social and monetary background. Rafeq has been the advisor and mentor of a lot of his personal contemporaries, in addition to of more youthful students within the Arab international, Europe and North the US. the quantity makes an attempt to stick to and supplement the main topics within the socio-economic heritage of Bilad al-Sham that have lively Rafeqs scholarship because the Nineteen Sixties.
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Extra info for Syria and Bilad al-Sham under Ottoman Rule
Many of them had tax-farms-for-life in central Syria, whose periodic re-granting required constant lobbying and ‘investment’ in Istanbul. This did not always work, in the sense that some family members had their properties confiscated, and some were even executed. The sons married into prominent local families while many of the daughters remained unmarried in order to preserve the family patrimony. The Kiwanis were long associated with the janissaries. Their founder was Kiwan ibn ʿAbdullah, a Mamluk in the service of the Ottoman governor of Gaza in the late sixteenth century.
They are proud of their Arab descent, the presumption of ‘chosen-ness’ within Islam that this implies, and their innate capacity to understand, and express themselves in, the language of the Qurʾan. These three factors combine to make them superior to non-Arabs, and specifically to Turks (and to Persians, although the Persians would have had little immediate resonance for al-Ghazzi or al-Nabulusi). What al-Nabulusi seems to be reacting against in particular is the preaching of the Kadizadeli movement, which had been influential during the seventeenth century, one of whose main complaints was that excessive Sufi influence had caused Muslims to abandon the sunna.
The Ottoman State and Local Society in Bilad al-Sham The next section contains six articles by Steve Tamari, Massoud Daher, Astrid Meier, Colette Establet and Jean-Paul Pascual, Martha Mundy 30 See Ruth Roded, ‘Great mosques, zawiyas and neighborhood mosques: popular beneficiaries of waqf endowments in 18th and 19th century Aleppo’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 110, 1990, 33–38; ‘The Waqf and the social elite of Aleppo in the 18th and 19th centuries’, Turcica, 20, 1988, 71–91, and Margaret Meriwether, The Kin Who Count: Family and Society in Ottoman Aleppo, 1770–1840, Austin, TX, University of Texas Press, 1999, Chapter 5, ‘Endowment and Family Structure’, 178–206.