By Dharma Kumar, Meghnad Desai

The Cambridge fiscal historical past of India, released in volumes, goals at tracing the adjustments within the economic climate of India from the 13th to the center of the current century and past. the second one quantity covers the interval 1757-1970, from the institution of British rule to its termination, with epilogues at the post-Independence interval. half I opens with a large description of the economic climate in the midst of the eighteenth century, then describes basic fiscal tendencies in 4 major areas as much as the center of the 19th century, and contains a dialogue of alterations within the agrarian constitution as much as the top of 1947. half II takes up a number of topics for the economic system as an entire, whereas half III offers with post-Independence advancements in India and Pakistan. The Cambridge financial heritage of India might be broadly approved because the common paintings of reference at the topic, and the volumes may be of relevance to fields except fiscal historical past, being the 1st significant collaborative paintings of its sort to discover the shift of a sophisticated Asian civilization from pre-colonial occasions to independence.

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446-7, 450. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 16 THE MID-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BACKGROUND remarkably backward and stagnant, not only as compared to that of the agricultural revolution in Europe or of Tokugawa Japan, but also in relation to mainland China. N o doubt in an agrarian society of such antiquity and sophistication, agricultural technology could hardly be altogether unchanging. Yet the only new technique of any importance so far attributed to the Mughal age is that of horticultural grafting.

Forbes, Oriental Memoirs . . H. Sykes, 'On the Land Tenures of the Dukhan', journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1835-6, 225. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE MID-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BACKGROUND 23 very considerable growth is, however, suggested strongly by all relevant sources of information. The most characteristic instrument of the merchants' control was the system of dadni, or advance of cash and raw material. While dadni could simply be related to particular orders, leaving the artisan free to produce and sell all his other manufactures, in practice it had the effect of binding particular groups of manufactures to a merchant or a European company and attempts to poach on rights of commercial rivals were jealously warded off.

The 'textile belt' from Puri to Sonargaon was not brought into being by European demand. By and large, the Companies latched onto the existing commercial organization for the procurement of their supplies and it coped with their demand quite comfortably without undergoing any major modification. Before 1753, their attempt to procure supplies directly from the producers had very limited success. Even the centres for processing or producing cotton textiles, silk yarn, saltpetre or indigo set up under the factories' auspices had their counterpart in similar efforts undertaken by Indian merchants.

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