By Pallavi V. Das

This research explores the confluence of economic climate and ecology in British India, displaying that Britain initiated fiscal improvement concepts in India with a purpose to successfully extract assets from it. It seems to be particularly at how kingdom railway building and wooded area conservation efforts took on a cyclical, virtually symbiotic relationship.

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Extra resources for Colonialism, Development, and the Environment: Railways and Deforestation in British India, 1860–1884

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Must be placed at a serious disadvantage in competing with the alternative route now offered from the Eastward without a break as far as Loodiana[Ludhiana]. . , from Lahore to Peshawar, and from Mooltan [Multan] to Kotri. 117 In order to efficiently extract resources through trade in the Punjab, especially on the Indus route, the state took up the construction of the IVR, which was an extension of the earlier built trunk line connecting Amritsar and Multan.

Viz the Railroad and the Steamers may be said with truth to be the crying wants of the Punjab in the department of Public works. . [T]he commerce and produce of these territories will be turned to their due course viz. The Indus and its feeders and to their natural outlet viz. the Port of Kurrachee [Karachi]. . The Chief Commissioner while deprecating any general extension of the Public works Department in the Punjab for the present would yet beg most earnestly to press these cardinal objects on the attention of the Government.

1 it can be seen that the capital invested in the railways as a percentage of the total capital invested in the public works in the Punjab increased by about 15 times over 25 years. This amounted to an increase of about 56 percent between 1858 and 1884. 4 percent between 1859–60 and 1883–84. 9 Source: Punjab Administrative Report for the years 1858–85. R a i lway s a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n C o l o n i a l I n d i a 35 The chief reason why the British increasingly invested so highly in railways in the Punjab can be seen in the following extract from a letter from the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab to the Department of Public Works, Government of India: Indeed these two .

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