By Stewart D. Personick (auth.)

This booklet is an outgrowth of a direction given through the writer for individuals in undefined, executive, and universities wishing to appreciate the implica­ tions of rising optical fiber expertise, and the way this know-how should be utilized to their particular info shipping and sensing approach wishes. The direction, in flip, is an outgrowth of 15 interesting years in which the writer participated within the examine and improvement, in addition to within the software, of fiber expertise. the purpose of this e-book is to supply the reader with a operating wisdom of the elements and subsystems which make up fiber structures and of a wide selection of applied and proposed purposes for fiber expertise. The publication is directed essentially at those that will be clients, rather than builders, of the know-how. the 1st 1/2 this publication is an summary of parts and subsys­ tems together with fibers, connectors, cables, assets, detectors, receivers, transmitters, and miscellaneous parts. The target is to familiarize the reader with the homes of those parts and subsystems to the level essential to comprehend their power purposes and limitations.

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There was a third source which was given some consideration as a possible candidate, but was dropped because it appeared to be more expensive to fabricate and more difficult to modulate. This was the miniature Nd-YAG laser pumped by light-emitting diodes. Because of its long intrinsic time constants, it requires an external modulator for most applications. > 46 Sec. 2 below}. They can be fabricated from various semiconductor material systems, which allows the device designer to select the desired wavelength of emlSSlon.

However, field mountable connectors of somewhat reduced performance (insertion loss) also exist. Although connectors require precision tolerances this does not neces· sarily imply high manufacturing costs (relative to metallic cable connectors). Cleaver connector designs can be manufactured by automated processes, with little or no manual adjustments or touch-up. Thus with sufficient volume to offset tooling development and implementation, incremental costs can be surprisingly low. 5 Selecting Fiber Parameters Before leaving the subject of fibers, cables, and connections it is useful to say something about the process by which fiber parameters (core diameter, index of refraction profile, etc,) are selected.

R - Radius of Bending Before Tension. results in a strong permanent connection. (It is important in fusion splicing and V-groove splicing not to damage the unprotected fiber surfaces, which would make them susceptible to breakage under relatively small strains'> In some sophisticated fusion splicing apparatus automated means are used to align the fiber cores once they have been approximately aligned manually. This is achieved by transmitting light through the fibers being spliced during the splicing operation and monitoring the throughput as a measure of alignment.

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