By Markolf H. Niemz

Medical practitioners, scientists and graduate scholars alike will locate this exhaustive survey a necessary studying device. It offers a radical description of the basics and functions within the box of laser-tissue interactions. simple thoughts comparable to the optical and thermal homes of tissue, a number of the varieties of tissue ablation, and optical breakdown and its similar results are taken care of intimately. the writer will pay distinct realization to mathematical instruments (Monte Carlo simulations, the Kubelka-Munk conception etc.) and licensed recommendations (photodynamic remedy, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy etc.). a bit on functions stories clinically suitable tools in smooth medication utilizing the most recent references.

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The whole procedure continues until the photon escapes from the considered volume or its weight reaches a given cutoff value. According to Meier et al. (1978) and Groenhuis et al. (1983), Monte Carlo simulations of absorption and scattering consist of five principal 34 2. Light and Matter steps: source photon generation, pathway generation, absorption, elimination, and detection. - 1. Source photon generation. Photons are generated at a surface of the considered medium. g. a Gaussian beam. - 2.

When this weight reaches a certain cutoff value, the photon is eliminated. Then, a new photon is launched, and the program proceeds with Step 1. - 5. Detection. After having repeated Steps 1-4 for a sufficient number of photons, a map of pathways is calculated and stored in the computer. Thus, statistical statements can be made about the fraction of incident photons being absorbed by the medium as well as the spatial and angular distribution of photons having escaped from it. S Absorption will be taken into account by Step 3.

S? Q c: ·L Q) +-' +-' E '-""" +-' 20 100 0 U Q. D « (f) 0 400 600 800 1000 0 Wavelength (nm) Fig. 17. Optical properties of white matter of human brain in its native and coagulated state. Data according to Roggan et al. (1995a) We have now discussed different theoretical approaches and experimental arrangements for determining optical tissue properties. It is important to realize that both theory and experiment are necessary in order to yield valuable results. During the past decade, several research groups have been investigating all kinds of biological tissue.

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